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History of Philosophy

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Philosophy
by Dhoyedz |
PHILOSOPHY
The History of Philosophy is often divided into three periods: Ancient philosophy, Medieval philosophy,
and Modern philosophy.
Philosophy is the discipline concerned with questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of
things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge
(epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic). The word is of Ancient Greek
origin (philosophía), meaning love of wisdom.
Definition of philosophy:
Every definition of philosophy is controversial. The field has historically expanded and changed
depending upon what kinds of questions were interesting or relevant in a given era. It is generally agreed
that philosophy is a method, rather than a set of claims, propositions, or theories. Its investigations are
based upon rational thinking, striving to make no unexamined assumptions and no leaps based on faith
or pure analogy. Different philosophers have had varied ideas about the nature of reason. There is also
disagreement about the subject matter of philosophy. Some think that philosophy examines the process
of inquiry itself. Others, that there are essentially philosophical propositions which it is the task of
philosophy to answer. Although the word "philosophy" originates in Ancient Greece, many figures in the
history of other cultures have addressed similar topics in similar ways. The philosophers of East and
South Asia are discussed in Eastern philosophy, while the philosophers of North Africa and the Middle
East, because of their strong interactions with Europe, are usually considered part of Western
philosophy.
Branches of philosophy:
"The point of philosophy is to start with something so simple as to seem not worth stating, and to end
with something so paradoxical that no one will believe it." To give an exhaustive list of the main divisions
of philosophy is difficult, because various topics have been studied by philosophers at various times.
Ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic are usually included. Other topics include politics,
aesthetics, and religion. In addition, most academic subjects have a philosophy, for example the
philosophy of science, the philosophy of mathematics, and the philosophy of history. Metaphysics was
first studied systematically by Aristotle. He did not use that term; the term emerged because in later
editions of Aristotle's works the book on what is now called metaphysics came after Aristotle's study of
physics. He calls the subject "first philosophy" (or sometimes just "wisdom"), and says it is the subject
that deals with "first causes and the principles of things". The modern meaning of the term is any inquiry
dealing with the ultimate nature of what exists. Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of

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knowledge, and whether knowledge is possible. Ethics, or 'moral philosophy', is concerned with
questions of how agents ought to act. Plato's early dialogues constitute a search for definitions of virtue.
Metaethics is the study of whether ethical value judgments can be objective at all. Ethics can also be
conducted within a religious context. Logic has two broad divisions: mathematical logic (formal symbolic
logic) and what is now called philosophical logic, the logic of language.
Greek philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy:
Ancient Greek philosophy may be divided into the pre-Socratic period, the Socratic period, and the post-
Aristotelian period (or Hellenistic period). The pre-Socratic period was characterized by metaphysical
speculation, often preserved in the form of grand, sweeping statements, such as "All is fire" or "All
changes". Important pre-Socratic philosophers include Pythagoras, Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes,
Democritus, Parmenides, Heraclitus, and Empedocles. The Socratic period is named in honor of
Socrates, who, along with his pupil Plato, revolutionized philosophy through the use of the Socratic
method, which developed the very general philosophical methods of definition, analysis, and synthesis.
While no writings of Socrates survive, his influence as a "skeptic" is transmitted through Plato's works.
Plato's writings are often considered basic texts in philosophy as they defined the fundamental issues of
philosophy for future generations. These issues and others were taken up by Aristotle, who studied at
Plato's school, the Academy, and who often disagreed with what Plato had written. The subsequent
period ushered in such philosophers as Euclid, Epicurus, Chrysippus, Hipparchia the Cynic, Pyrrho, and
Sextus Empiricus. Though many of these philosophers may seem irrelevant given current scientific
knowledge, their systems of thought continue to influence both philosophy and science today.
Medieval philosophy History:
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Western Europe and the Middle East during what is now known
as the medieval era or the Middle Ages, roughly extending from the fall of the Roman Empire to the
Renaissance period. Medieval philosophy is defined partly by the rediscovery and further development of
classical Greek philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy, and partly by the need to address theological
problems and to integrate sacred doctrine (in Islam, Judaism and Christianity) and secular learning.
Some problems discussed throughout this period are the relation of faith to reason, the existence and
unity of God, the object of theology and metaphysics, the problems of knowledge, of universals, and of
individuation. Philosophers from the Middle Ages include the Muslim philosophers Alkindus, Alfarabi,
Alhacen, Avicenna, Algazel, Avempace, Abubacer and Averroes; the Jewish philosophers Maimonides
and Gersonides; and the Christian philosophers Anselm, Peter Abelard, Roger Bacon, Thomas Aquinas,
Duns Scotus, William of Ockham and Jean Buridan.
Early modern philosophy History(c. 1600 - c. 1800):
Modern philosophy is usually considered to begin with the revival of skepticism and the genesis of
modern physical science. Canonical figures include Montaigne, Descartes, Locke, Spinoza, Leibniz,
Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. Chronologically, this era spans the 17th and 18th centuries, and is generally
considered to end with Kant's systematic attempt to reconcile Newtonian physics with traditional
metaphysical topics.
Later modern philosophy History(c. 1800 - c. 1960):
Later modern philosophy is usually considered to begin after the philosophy of Immanuel Kant at the
beginning of the 19th-century. German idealists, Fichte, Hegel, Hoelderlin, Schelling, expanded on the

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Philosophy by Dhoyedz | PHILOSOPHY The History of Philosophy is often divided into three periods: Ancient philosophy, Medieval philosophy, and Modern philosophy. Philosophy is the discipline concerned with questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic). The word is of Ancient Greek origin (philosoph?a), meaning love of wisdom. Definition of philosophy: Every definition of philosophy is controversial. The field has historically expanded and changed depending upon what kinds of questions were interesting or relevant in a given era. It is generally agreed that philosophy is a method, rather than a set of claims, propositions, or theories. Its investigations are based upon rational thinking, striving to make no unexamined assumptions and no leaps based on faith or pure analogy. Different philosophers have had varied ideas about the nature of reason. There is also disagreement about the subject matter of philosophy. Some think that philosophy examines the process of inquiry itself. Others, that there are essentially philosophical propositions which it is the task of philosophy to answer. Although the word "philosophy" originates in Ancient Greece, many figures in the history of other cultures have addressed similar topics in similar ways. The philosophers of East and South Asia are discussed in East ...
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