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Cold War Ideology and Policies
Week 1 :
During World War II the United States’ allies were much different than the allies they gained
after the war. The Untied States’ allies were Britain and Russia while the axis powers were
Germany, Italy, and Japan. Throughout the war these countries relied upon each other while
trying to defeat the enemy. After the war the United States and Russia emerged as the two
greatest powers while Britain was suffering devastation due to the war. Though both of these
countries worked together in the war their worldviews were completely different. The United
States chose a government based on democracy and private enterprise, where as Russia
envisioned a communistic utopia. International relations between Russia and the United States
started to deteriorate thus the start of the cold war, an ideology that would span a period of nearly
fifty years. (Denslow, 2006)
With the start of the cold war many policies and practices that would become internationally
known. President Truman felt it should be the policy of the United States to aid financially and
give to give military protection to any free country that might be threatened by communism; this
became known as the Truman Doctrine. Shortly after the Truman Doctrine was established, the
Marshall Plan was announced; this plan provided financial assistance to Western Europe. In
1949 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed to keep Europe safe from
Russia’s powers. This is a policy the United States still uses to this day, they have become
internationally known for helping those who are unable to protect themselves.
References
Allied Powers (2010), in Encyclopædia Britannica., retrieved January 10, 2010, from
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/709099/Allied-Powers
Pike, John (2009), “Cold War”, retrieved January 10, 2010 from
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/cold_war.htm

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Week 2 :
Eisenhours Domestic Politics
The post-war years of 1950s America are typically described as being a period of economic
prosperity and technological advances. Indeed, the nation's Gross National Product (GNP) more
than doubled, jumping from $212 billion in 1945 to $504 billion in 1960. Likewise, increases in
per capita income and real purchasing power were enjoyed by most Americans. The United
States had become the richest nation in the world. Many of her citizens, weary from the
hardships of the Great Depression and World War II, eagerly embraced the seemingly endless
bounty. Freshly built suburban homes were filled with the latest technological gadgets as
consumers raced to join what economist John Kenneth Galbraith called the "affluent society."
But all was not well for African Americans in the 1950s. Millions had returned home from
World War II to find themselves excluded from the American dream. In an age of rising
expectations, African Americans voiced their demands for a fair share of the prosperity and
promise that seemed to envelope much of the nation. Calling attention to the inferior quality of
their children's education, they challenged the notion of a "separate but equal" educational
system. Equality of education, most African Americans concluded, could only be assured
through integration.
Eisenhower felt confident that he and Faubus had reached an agreement. He was mistaken. Upon
returning to Little Rock, Faubus kept the state National Guard at the high school. When a federal
judge ordered him to refrain from interfering with desegregation of the school, Faubus removed
the Guard, leaving only the local police to fend off an angry, violent mob. The police were able
to safely remove the nine students, but the chaos continued.
President Eisenhower defended his refusal to denounce McCarthy publicly, claiming that to do
so would only further polarize the nation and reward McCarthy with additional publicity.
Emboldened by such support, McCarthy set out to widen the scope of his investigations. This
time, however, he would go too far.
When McCarthy, armed with little more than hearsay and innuendo, set out to expose
communists within the U.S. Army, Eisenhower decided enough was enough. He instructed his
staff to present information that would discredit McCarthy. It was revealed that McCarthy had
petitioned the Army to award preferential treatment to his assistant, David Shine. Finding
himself on the defensive, McCarthy demanded notes of meetings between Eisenhower
administration personnel and Army officials. Eisenhower established a presidential precedent by
invoking executive privilege in refusing to turn over the notes. Claiming that matters of national
security might be breached if administration officials were forced to testify under oath,

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