Fire Whirls Experimentation

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In the creation of a fire whirl one needs a concentration apparatus, an ambient vorticity source and a suitable setting for fire whirl growth and stability, also known as augmentation physics. In 1966, Emmons and Ying studied fire whirls and documented it in their paper [11]. Through the experiment, they established the primary mechanisms. They conducted their laboratory experiment using 3-meter high apparatus, which employed 2.25-meter diameter mesh, rotating to induce an angular momentum and burning acetone as the combustible fuel to introduce a buoyancy source. Additionally they proposed that a fire plume model constructed on the 1-dimensional entrainment theory, however it failed to replicate the fire plume growth with height.

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IntroductionIn the creation of a fire whirl one needs a concentration apparatus, an ambient vorticitysource and a suitable setting for fire whirl growth and stability, also known as augmentationphysics. In 1966, Emmons and Ying studied fire whirls and documented it in their paper [11].Through the experiment, they established the primary mechanisms. They conducted theirlaboratory experiment using 3-meter high apparatus, which employed 2.25-meter diameter mesh,rotating to induce an angular momentum and burning acetone as the combustible fuel tointroduce a buoyancy source. Additionally they proposed that a fire plume model constructed onthe 1-dimensional entrainment theory, however it failed to replicate the fire plume growth withheight.In 1970, Mayle advanced Emmons and Yings earlier experiment by measuring thepressure and the velocity inside the fire whirl [25]. He discovered that the plumes behavior wascontrolled by rossby, dimensionless plume froude, second damkohler, the reaction rate numbersand mixing coefficient. Additionally, for plumes that have a less than one Rossby numberexhibited a high plume expansion rate with height. The observed phenomenon is referred to asvortex breakdown. The hydraulic jump-like occurrence is caused by surface waves moving to thefire plumes surface where the speed of the fluid velocity is higher. Regrettably, improvedentrainment-rate type mockups also do not foretell the phenomenon accurately.Ground level boundary layers c
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