info 330 Assignment 3

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a) Pipelining protocols allows the sender of data packets to send out many/multiple packets without the need of waiting for acknowledgement from the receiver. However, all the data packets need to be retained until they are acknowledged in case they need to be resent. In the case of limiting the number of data packets that need to be retained, the pipelined protocols need to set an upper bound of the packets that are in the pipeline or packets that have already been sent but not yet acknowledged. The upper bound limit therefore imposes a window size that is based on the sequence numbers for the packets in the pipeline

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Surname 1Name:College:Instructor:Date:Assignment #3 Transport LayerQuestion #1a) Pipelining protocols allows the sender of data packets to send out many/multiple packetswithout the need of waiting for acknowledgement from the receiver. However, all thedata packets need to be retained until they are acknowledged in case they need to beresent. In the case of limiting the number of data packets that need to be retained, thepipelined protocols need to set an upper bound of the packets that are in the pipeline orpackets that have already been sent but not yet acknowledged. The upper bound limittherefore imposes a window size that is based on the sequence numbers for the packets inthe pipeline. Therefore, the window size refers to the limit of the retained packets in thepipeline and relates to pipelining in that the number of the packet retained in the pipelinemust have a limit to ensure reliable data transfer and transmission over the establishedconnection and the limit number of the packet retained is termed as the window size.b) RTT or round-trip time refers to the time between the transmission of a data packet andthe arrival of the ACK for the data packet. RTT pla
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