Circuit Breakers and their operation

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Circuit Breakers Introduction and Various Types of Circuit Breakers: Air blast, bulk oil, minimum oil, SF6, and vaccum operation and functioning with diagrams. Making and breaking capacities of Circuit Breaker.

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Circuit Breakers*The function of a circuit breaker (CB) is to isolate the faulty part ofa power system in case of an abnormal condition (fault).*The relay detects any fault e. g. short circuit occurring in a powersystem. On detection of a fault the relay closes its contacts and closesthe trip circuit of the associated CB. Then the CB operates i.e. opensits contacts and isolates the faulty part leaving the healthy part intact.*The faulty part is repaired and brought back to serviceconveniently.*When the CB opens an arc is formed between its contacts (fixed andmoving contacts). The arc is extinguished at a current zero by differentmechanisms in different types of CBs e.g. in an air blast CB the arc isextinguished by air blast.*After arc extinction the CB is reclosed. A CB may have a single pairof fixed and moving contacts or a number of pairs operating in series(multi break construction) per phase.*The multibreak construction has the advantage that:(i) the voltage is divided over a number of contacts so that only a fractionappears across each and(ii) the speed of arc lengthening is increased in proportion to the numberof pairs of contacts.*The components of CB operating time is shown in Figure 1*High voltage CBs, 11 kV and above, take five basic forms: air blast,bulk oil, minimum oil, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and vacuum.*CB ratings are determined by the fault MVA at their particular location.The maximum CB rating is of the order of 50,000-60,000 M
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