Access over 20 million homework & study documents


HUM 111 Final Exam




Showing Page:
Axia College Material
Appendix B
Final Exam
Access the Electronic Reserve Readings link on your student Web site for Week Nine.
Select one of the topics below and read both articles that present opposing sides of the
argument surrounding that topic.
o Animal experimentation
o Outsourcing
o Media violence
Answer the following questions in paragraphs of approximately 100 words demonstrating
your critical and creative thinking skills.
1. Identify if the topic you chose, as presented by both articles, is a problem or an issue
and explain what makes it a problem or an issue. If you believe the articles present
both problems and issues, identify and explain what the problems are and what the
issues are.
I chose the topic of media violence and after reading both articles, I believe that there
are both problems, as well as, issues present. The main problem seems to be that
there is violent behavior and there are many social factors that contribute to it. Most
people informed on the matter would agree to this instead of being divided with
different opinions. The issue is over whether media violence has an effect on
aggression or not. While one side of the arguments suggests that media violence has
a direct effect on aggressive behaviors, the opposing view states that media violence
doesn’t lead to real-life violence.
2. Were the problems or issues expressed effectively? Describe how the problems or
issues were or were not best expressed.
I felt the issue of this topic was expressed effectively. In the argument against media
violence affects real-life violence, James D. Torr expresses the issue very clearly and
does it just as the textbook says. He identified the challenge for both sides,
expressed the issue in the appropriate form of a question, and objectively refined the
expression to eliminate confusion. The problem wasn’t expressed as effectively. In
John Woodward’s article, it wasn’t in the form of a question and without looking for it,
could be overlooked. The problem was even followed by an argument supporting his
views which can cause confusion.
3. How would you determine the credibility of the sources of information used by the
authors in the articles when investigating the problems or issues presented by your
First I would attempt to determine what types of sources were used. In my opinion,
certain sources such as eye witness testimonies and personal experiences, for
example, aren’t very credible. They are speculative and provide no evidence to
support any arguments. Next I would try to research the sources for validity and
accuracy. Just because a source was cited, doesn’t mean it is an actual source or
was even used accurately. If the internet was used as a source, I would view all of

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
the websites to determine credibility. Some sites could be based on opinions whereas
others could provide false information.
4. Compare two steps that would be most effective in refining solutions to the problem
and resolutions to the issues presented by your topic.
In refining the solutions to the problem of aggressive behavior, working out the details
and making improvements would be the two best steps. Working out the details
would allow everyone involved to ask enough questions to come up with a solution
that best solves the problem. Making improvements eliminates imperfections in the
solution such as changing the terminology, the steps involved, or the way it’s used. To
refine a resolution to the issue presented by the topic, the steps used are deciding
the action to be taken and recognizing and overcoming difficulties. Similar to working
out the details, deciding what to do involves asking questions to determine the best
course of action. Overcoming difficulties combines checking for imperfections,
comparing plans, and considering changes to the plan and effects it will have.
5. Identify three strategies that could help you foster criticism when evaluating both
arguments for your topic.
The first, and probably most important, strategy to use is to focus on my ideas.
Instead of focusing on criticizing others’ ideas initially, I would try to think of criticism
towards my own ideas first. Another important strategy is to avoid assumptions as
much as possible. Even though they are reasonable to have, they can still be
incorrect so it’s important to be careful about what is assumed. Applying curiosity is
another equally important strategy. It increases the awareness of the problems and
issues in order to feel dissatisfactions and annoyances more consciously to regard
them more productively as opportunities.
6. Identify three approaches that would be most effective in refining solutions to the
In trying to refine a resolution to the issue and problem, one approach is to check for
common types of imperfections. Safety, convenience, efficiency, simplicity, and
morality are all examples of imperfections that can have an effect on the outcome of
the solution. Considering the changes the solution will cause is another approach in
refining a solution. If a particular plan is used, even minor changes should be thought
of and which of them would cause complications. One more approach is to consider
the effects the solution will have on people. In addition to the changes that can occur,
the effects of a solution on people should also be thought about in order to find any
7. Identify at least three errors affecting truth and validity in the arguments for your
chosen topic.
I think the first error in truth comes from John Woodward’s argument. His main
argument is based on either/or thinking. Either media violence has a direct effect on
real-life violence, or it doesn’t. He doesn’t leave room for influential factors like age,
ethnicity, background, and parental styles that can increase the effects, or even
cause the effects, of media violence. The next error also comes from Woodward’s
argument. He demonstrates a double standard because his argument claims media
violence has an effect on real-life violence, yet he also says that not all violence lead
to aggressive behaviors. Another error is in James Torr’s argument which is irrational
appeal. It comes as the “We’ve been this way with no negative effects.”
8. Summarize the steps you completed while evaluating both sides of your topic.

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
The first step I used to evaluate these two arguments was to identify each argument
and determine if it was stated clearly. Next I read through each article and examined
each of them for any errors affecting truth. Since each article argued the other, I used
them to challenge the other. Then I tried to examine each argument for errors in
validity and determined whether the conclusions were legitimate or not. Finally, I
thought of ways to revise both of the arguments in order to correct the errors that
were found.
9. Explain what techniques you would use to present your ideas on this topic and
persuade others effectively.
I would start with trying to understand why people reject ideas. The more that their
ideas and beliefs are challenged, the more likely they are to object. I would then
determine what the audience knows, doesn’t know, and what their opinions are. That
would allow me to determine what factors influence them and consider the variety of
views they might take. Next I would anticipate the audience’s objections in order to
identify any valid arguments. Lastly, I would present my ideas to advantage.
Presenting my ideas in a way that respects the audience and begins in a familiar way
is a great start to getting attention.
10. Identify three approaches you will use to apply these techniques to effective writing
and speaking skills.
The most important approach is planning. It requires assembling ideas, choosing the
arrangement, and choosing the introduction and conclusion of my thoughts. Revising
the writing or speech would be next. It would allow me to review the information for
any errors and make any necessary changes. I would then go to organization and
practicing the delivery. Unlike writing, speaking can’t be changed as it is being
presented so it’s important to organize the material and practice giving the speech in
the most effective manner.

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up

Great content here. Definitely a returning customer.