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Computer Science

COMPUTER STUDIES CONCEPTS

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS.
TERMINOLOGIES.
COMPUTER - it is a data processing device made up of electronic and electrical
Components that can perform computing and logic operation.
-Its a data processing device used to store inputs, and retrieve, outputs display and
Printing information.
-It’s a data processing device that works under set of instruction to produce data into information.
COMPUTER USER - A person with the ability to use a computer as a resource or a tool.
COMPUTER SYSTEM - A system comprising of computer that are working together to produce information.
PERIPHERALS -these are devices that are attached to the central processing unit.
ORGWARE -A man with much formal technical knowledge of the computer.
COMPUTER PROGRAMMER -He is responsible of writing program and instructing languages.
TECHNICIAN -Repairs and maintains computer.
COMPUTER OPERATOR - They deals with software.
COMPUTER ILLITERATE - Inability of having any knowledge of computer.
COMPUTER LITERATE - A person with very little knowledge on how to work with the computer.
BOOTING -Starting up a computer.
- A Process by which computer load system files to main memory.
DATA - Raw task of an object
- Raw information.
INFORMATION - Processed data.
HARDWARE - Tangible parts of computer. I.e. keyboard.
SOFTWARE - Intangible part of computer i.e. programs.
- It’s a set of instruction that command the computer on what to do.
PROCESSING - Act of manipulating raw data information which can be useful.
NETWORK -a group of computer connected together to share some resources.
HANGING -It’s a state whereby the machine does not respond to any command either by
clicking or pressing any key from the keyboard.
ADVANTAGE OF USING A COMPUTER
i. Volume-computer works at a very high speed while processing information in
relation to manual work
ii. Computer are available i.e. it is there for you any time
iii. Accuracy

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iv. Complexity-it can do perform a difficult task
v. Flexibility-perform a number of jobs
vi. Computers are automatic
vii. Reliable-computer produces better information because output is usually neat and
tidy.
viii. Communication is easier through internet
DISADVANTAGES
i. Breakdown like any other machine
ii. Cost-computer is expensive to buy
iii. Affect eyesight-if the light is not well regulated
iv. Computer has no common sense hence it works under set of instruction.
v. Installation for program is expensive
vi. Computer technology is full of changes
vii. Reduction of labour force
ELEMENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM
Computer system is made up of 4 parts namely;-
a. INPUT HARDWARE
b. PROCESSING HARDWARE
c. STORAGE HARDWARE
d. OUTPUT HARDWARE
A. INPUT HARDWARE
These are units used for capturing data and instructions.
Through these hardware’s raw data is fed into computer for execution and processing device used are keyboard
and mouse.
B. PROCESSING HARDWARE
This is the CPU (CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT)
Its process all information Fed into it
It comprises of three units
(i) MAIN MEMORY
It’s also known as random Access Memory (RAM)
-primary storage
-online storage
Main memory holds data briefly/temporally RAM is volatile and data get lost if power goes off.
(ii)ALU (Arithmetic and logic unit)
It performs all the arithmetic and logic operation. Its found in the CPU All mathematical and calculation are done
by ALU
(iii) CONTROL UNIT
Control all part of the CPU
It controls the entire task performed by the computer.
(C). STORAGE HARDWARE
Unit that provide means of storing data /information in the computer.
ROM (read only memory) is found in storage hardware in CPU where data and information are stored
permanently is also known as auxiliary storage, External storage and Secondary storage

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Anonymous
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