# Correlation And Causation

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User Generated
Subject
Statistics
School
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
Type
Homework
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NAME
SCHOOL AFFILIATION
TUTOR’S NAME
TOPIC
Correlation and causation

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1. Differentiate between correlation and causation.
Correlation is a statistical measure (a number) that indicates the size and direction of a relationship
between two or more variables. A correlation between variables, on the other hand, does not imply
that a change in one variable is the cause of a change in the values of the other variable. Basically,
Correlation is the relationship between things that happen or change at the same time.
There is a positive as well as a negative association. A positive correlation is a relationship that
occurs between two variables that moves in the same direction. When one variable drops, the other
variable decreases, and when one variable grows, the other variable increases. A negative
correlation is a connection between two variables in which one variable rises while the other falls,
or as one variable falls, the other rises.
Causation refers to a relationship between two events in which one influences the other. In
statistics, causality occurs when the value of one event, or variable, rises or falls as a result of other
events. Causation denotes that one event is the outcome of the other event's occurrence; that is,
there is a causal link between the two occurrences. This is also known as cause and effect.
In theory, the distinction between the two types of linkages is straightforward: an action or event
can either cause another (e.g., smoking raises the risk of developing lung cancer) or correlate with
another (e.g., smoking is correlated with alcoholism, but it does not cause alcoholism). In reality,
however, demonstrating cause and effect remains more challenging than showing correlation.
2. Explain how each is calculated or tested.
A) Correlation
A statistical correlation between two variables is assessed using a Correlation Coefficient, denoted
by the symbol (r), which is a single integer that indicates the degree of link between two variables.

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NAME SCHOOL AFFILIATION TUTOR’S NAME TOPIC Correlation and causation 1. Differentiate between correlation and causation. Correlation is a statistical measure (a number) that indicates the size and direction of a relationship between two or more variables. A correlation between variables, on the other hand, does not imply that a change in one variable is the cause of a change in the values of the other variable. Basically, Correlation is the relationship between things that happen or change at the same time. There is a positive as well as a negative association. A positive correlation is a relationship that occurs between two variables that moves in the same direction. When one variable drops, the other variable decreases, and when one variable grows, the other variable increases. A negative correlation is a connection between two variables in which one variable rises while the other falls, or as one variable falls, the other rises. Causation refers to a relationship between two events in which one influences the other. In statistics, causality occurs when the value of one event, or variable, rises or falls as a result of other events. Causation denotes that one event is the outcome of the other event's occurrence; that is, there is a causal link between the two occurrences. This is also known as cause and effect. In theory, the distinction between the two types of linkages is straightforward: an action or event can either cause another (e.g., smoking raises the risk of de ...
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