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Introduction to Rapport and Surveys
Studies that use self-reporting measures for collecting data must have some strategies in place for
enhancing internal validity.
See the linked document for three key strategies to establishing rapport.
Establishing a Rapport with the Participants
Regardless of the focus on your research, you need to determine the best way to approach and
interact with the participants in the study. This is especially important and requires more work if
the participants are not your cohorts. For example, if there is a large cultural or ethnicity gap
between the participant and the investigator, something needs to be done to bridge the gap. In
such cases, the researcher should learn, as much as possible, about the community of interest
before starting a study. The idea is not to mimic the customs and manners of the participants, but
to understand them and increase positive communication with them.
At times, it may be helpful to take assistance from a member of the group to gain access to the
group and foster trust. For example, if a study is being conducted on how women cope after
sexual harassment in the workplace, it would be preferred if the mediator is a woman who has
experienced such a situation.
Questionnaires and Interviews
Designing Effective Questionnaires and Interviews
Questionnaires
When a study depends on acquiring data via self-reporting measures, an investigator should
always try to make the best fit between the types of questions asked, the person who is asking the
questions, and the person answering the questions. Making sure the fit is as appropriate as
possible increases a participant's sincerity and willingness. This in turn leads to greater internal
validity.
See the linked document to explore ways of designing an effective questionnaire.
You have learned that the wording of your questionnaire should be carefully considered so the
participants understand the questions and are willing to answer the questions in an honest
manner. Understanding your audience helps you write the questions in a clear and nonoffensive
manner.
Interviews
Research interviews are usually more flexible than questionnaires and have a more open format
that permits the investigator to ask follow-up questions when clarification is needed. There are
some challenges, however, to interviewing people who are from a different cohort.
See the linked document for information about interviewing participants from other cohort
groups.

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Testing-Style Balance in Assessments
Let's see how you can achieve a test-style balance during assessment.
Sample Battery of Tests for a Study
Regardless of whether you choose to use a questionnaire or interview format to collect self-
reports for your study, you must learn to achieve a testing-style balance during assessment. This
involves maintaining a balance between being formal and structured and being informal and
unstructured.
In many studies, participants brought in for testing are given a large battery of tests that can take
several hours.
See the table for a sample battery of tests from a typical study. The battery starts with the consent
form, and then the following list of tests are administered one by one until the end.
Prelimilary Information Paper-and-Pencil Tests
Consent Form Vocabulary
Background Questionnaire S-D Copying
Computer Tests Pattern Comparison
Sequence Learning Letter Comparison
Grammar Testing Number Matching
Digit Learning Pattern Matching
Code Learning Digit Copying
Fitness Assessment Multiple Trial FreeRecall Test
Blood Pressure Matrix ReasoningTest
Grip Strength Cube Assembly Test
Visual Acuity
Technicians or research assistants are often trained to administer a battery of tests, and they can
become quite efficient at testing. However, this efficiency may be too forbidding for participants,
and they may perceive the technician as too formal and automated. In a recent research study on
people suffering from a disease with great social stigma, one of the most efficient technicians
received a letter of complaint because she was overly efficient. The letter described her as cold,
robotic, and unfeeling.

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Introduction to Rapport and Surveys Studies that use self-reporting measures for collecting data must have some strategies in place for enhancing internal validity. See the linked document for three key strategies to establishing rapport. Establishing a Rapport with the Participants Regardless of the focus on your research, you need to determine the best way to approach and interact with the participants in the study. This is especially important and requires more work if the participants are not your cohorts. For example, if there is a large cultural or ethnicity gap between the participant and the investigator, something needs to be done to bridge the gap. In such cases, the researcher should learn, as much as possible, about the community of interest before starting a study. The idea is not to mimic the customs and manners of the participants, but to understand them and increase posit ...
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I was having a hard time with this subject, and this was a great help.

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