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BIO 101 The Prokaryotic Kingdoms






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The Kingdoms
The Prokaryotic Kingdoms
The first kingdom I would like to talk about in the Prokaryotic Evolution is
the Bacteria Kingdom. There are many different bacteria in this world,
some are bad which cause sickness and disease and some, surprisingly,
can be beneficial in today’s world.
First, let’s take a look at some bad bacteria, and what can happen when
we come across it.
There are bacteria and other organisms that cause disease, and they
are called pathogens .Most of the time, our bodies can keep the
pathogens that we are regularly exposed to in check. Our immune
system is amazing at this. Once in a while our body’s defense system
become compromised and will fail, maybe when we don’t get the
vitamins and minerals that we need. Toxic overload (prescription
medicines, cleaning fluids, insecticides, hairspray etc.),not enough sleep,
too much stress, old age, too much exposure to the sun, too much
physical exertion, or the wrong diet could all lower our immune system.
("A Weak, or Strong Immune System,” 2007)
That is when bacteria could creep in and set up house in our bodies.
Even some bacteria that we normally carry without causing us harm can
gain strength and over run us if we are not careful.
A bacterium makes us sick when they become too strong and secrete a
poison called Exotoxins.

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An example of a Bacteria pathogen is too often see is Salmonella. A
more common lay term for Salmonella is “food poisoning”.
Salmonellosis is occurs when food is consumed raw or undercooked as
in meats. Infection can happen when a person eats foods that have a
high amount of the bacteria, which would be like putting an amount of
the bacteria in a petri dish and growing it. In healthy people, the
symptoms are weak and mild. In others, when they ingest salmonella,
they will have diarrhea, maybe some fever, puking, and stomach
Let’s have a look at what this invader looks like:
Proteobacteria: Salmonella ("Salmonella," 2013)
And how do we catch it the most often?
Right…….! By ingesting foods that have not been properly stored or
Before we move onto the second kingdom of the Prokaryotic Evolution,
let’s take a look at a “good bacterium.
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus (Kahl, n.d.)
Here is another image (
Not very pretty, huh? , but this is the bacteria that you find in yogurt.
Some types of these particular bacteria have been known to give off
toxins that have been observed as being able to kill bad bacteria in vitro.
This bacteria does normally live in the human digestive tract, but is often
killed off by sickness or antibiotics. Did you ever catch, I’m going to say
it….diarrhea? Then eat your yogurt and replace your probiotics!
Now, let’s move on to the other kingdom that is made up of single-celled
microorganisms called Archaea.
The Archaea are extreme environmentalists. They thrive in places where
other bacteria would turn up their toes in a matter of minutes. They are
found in the boiling geysers of Yellowstone Park, to living in the ice of the
Antarctica and everywhere in between.( "Archaea," 2013) There are
even Archaea specimens that can live in an oxygen free environment.

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Imagine that…..oxygen free! They give off methane gas as a waste
product. But, don’t let that fool you; they can also live in normal
environments also like oceans and soil. Before we discuss this group
any further, let’s get a peek at what they look like:
("Archaea." Wikipedia)
Hmmmmm, let’s see another specimen:
( "Archaea," 2013)
It wasn’t until 1977 that the Archaea were classified as “single cell
organisms” instead of classified as bacteria.
Now, we know what they look like and where they are found…..let’s
explore if they either hurt or help their environment.
Both Eukaryotes and Bacteria are known to cause diseases, but not
Archaea? Is this right?
Some people think that we just do not know enough about Archaea to
say this for sure. Through history, bacteria has been most examined and
known as the groups that gave off pathogens. Microbiology labs are
setup in medical universities to study bacteria. Archaea, on the other
hand, has always been always been studied by “environmental”
microbiologist not looking for pathogens.
Bacteria and pathogens have always been have always been linked and
studied as one causing the other. But, even given that Archaea are one
of the most numerous and wide spread life forms on earth, not one
member of the kingdom Archaea has been called a human pathogen,
either by oversight on our part or they are simply not a threat.
Archaea do show, though, some of the same characteristics that known
pathogens display. Examples are having an opportunity to infect a host
and the capability to setup a colony and co-exist with internal flora within
the host. It has the capability, but not the drive to. (Eckburg, 2013)
So, now there is only one more topic to go over before we are finished
with this report and that is “Are Archaea helpful?”
Let’s have one more look at an Archaea:
("Archaea Active in Evolv Nutraceutical Water," 2009)

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Excellent resource! Really helped me get the gist of things.