Access over 20 million homework & study documents

search

PSY 325 Week 2 Assignment - Inferential Statistics Article Critique

Type

Homework

Rating

Showing Page:
1/6
Running head: INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 1
Inferential Statistics
Your Name
PSY 325
Instructor Name
University Name
Date

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
Running head: INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 2
We have all heard about the dangers of smoking and the horrible effects that cigarettes can have on our
bodies and on those around us. Smoking is often used as a weight control strategy among female
smokers. The pressures that women sometimes feel to look a certain way can be overwhelming and
make women desperate to fit into society’s ideal of what a women should look like. There are many
different benefits that come from smoking such as reduced anxiety, improved mood, and weight
control. However, these benefits can also be achieved through physical activity. However, over the past
few decades we have learned much more about the problems that smoking can cause. In this paper, I
will discuss the article, Differential Effects of a Body Image Exposure Session on Smoking Urge
Between Physically Active and Sedentary Female Smokers and the different variables of this study,
such as sample sizes, population, and treatments. I will also discuss the inferential statistics used in the
article and if the proper steps of hypothesis testing were followed. I will also discuss what the
researchers were trying to actually determine, what specific concepts were applied in testing the
hypothesis, what exactly the assumptions and limitations are of the study, and how the authors applied
the statistical testing. Finally, I will discuss what the findings were using statistical concepts. Smoking
is a serious danger to everyone who indulges and to those around them. While smoking may provide
temporary reliefs such as tension relief, weight loss, among other so called “benefits”. It is vitally
important to understand the risks of smoking among women and the reasons behind the smoking and
the risks to a woman’s health. If we have all of this information, I think we will have a much healthier
society that is much more aware.
In the article, Differential Effects of a Body Image Exposure Session on Smoking Urge Between
Physically Active and Sedentary Female Smokers, the goal of the researchers was to assess the effects
of physical activity compared to female smokers that have little to none physical activity, thus being
considered sedentary. The other goal of this research was to assess the smoking urge responses
following a body image challenge with women that were concerned about their weight that also
happened to be smokers. The article states, The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a
novel behavioral task (body-image exposure) that was designed to elicit body image and weight
concerns on urge to smoke among 18–24 year old female smokers who vary in levels of physical
activity. Using a cue-reactivity paradigm, 16 sedentary (SE) and 21 physically active (PA) female
smokers (5 cigarettes/day for past 6 months) were exposed to a pilot tested body-image exposure
session. Self-reported urge and latency to first puff were obtained before and after exposure session”

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
Running head: INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 3
(Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013). In this very recent study, done in 2013, the authors assessed
exactly how strong the urge to smoke was in a group of women at different levels of physical activity,
with some being more active and others being sedentary, after they took part in intensive exercise. The
time between exercise and the first puff of a cigarette was measured, as was the severity of the urge in
the women directly before and directly after the physical activity.
The hypothesis of this fascinating study would be that after the body image is manipulated,
sedentary smokers would demonstrate a greater self reported urge to smoke and a shorter expectancy to
first puff on a post-test cigarette when compared to women that are physically active smokers (Nair,
Collins, & Napolitano, 2013). The researchers responsible for this study gathered 37 female smokers
who reported high smoking related weight concerns. The researchers started by having the women
attend a 90 minute lab session, during which they had to complete consent forms and questionnaires
and they were also exposed to a “body image expose task”. They were requested to please not smoke at
least two hours prior before the study began. Self-reported urge and the latency to the first puff of a
cigarette were measured both before and after exposure. I believe that the proper steps to testing this
hypothesis were correctly followed. The assumption of this study was to find out and examine the
effects of a novel behavioral task (body-image exposure) that is designed to elicit body image and
weight concerns among female smokers 18-24, that vary in their level of physical activity.
Statistical analysis was used during this study in several ways. The first being that the
information gathered during the study would be paired with a sample t-test that was used to compare
means of both pre and post-test urge scores between the two groups. The difference between groups
were analyzed using 2 x 2 repeated measures of analysis of co-variance controlling nicotine
dependence, withdrawal, and also concerns the women had about weight. The article states, “A paired
sample t test was used to compare means of pre- and post-test urge scores between the two groups.
Differences in smoking urge between groups were analyzed using a 2 x 2 (physical activity group [PA
vs. SE] time [pretest vs. post-test]) repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling
for nicotine dependence, withdrawal, and weight concerns. Partial correlation analyses was used to
analyze associations between time spent in physical activity and smoking urge controlling for weight
concerns, nicotine dependence, and withdrawal along with variables with significant bivariate
correlations with urge” (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013). The partial correlation results show that
the potential to first puff did not show a significant association between the time in which strong
activity took place and also post-test potential. The article states, There were no group differences in

Sign up to view the full document!

lock_open Sign Up
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Anonymous
Great study resource, helped me a lot.

Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4