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Outline and Documentation for Public Speaking


Study Guide


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Public Speaking Outline & Documentation
Avoiding Plagiarism
There is only one way to avoid plagiarism use proper citation format. Remember
that documentation includes not only in-text citations (parenthetical notes), but also a
list of references.
A citation acts as a starting point for your reader, directing him or her to the source,
thus allowing him or her to research further. For example:
In a recent NPR story, Robert Krulwich investigated how much heat a person could
withstand. He relates the story of three members of the Royal Society of London who, in 1775,
conducted an experiment using themselves as volunteers. They also experimented using a chicken
egg and a dog (2009).
The reader then looks for the writer’s last name on the list of references:
Krulwich, Robert (Writer). (2009, July 31). Hot! Hot! Hot! How Much Heat Can You Take? All
Things Considered. Retrieved from
It’s important to understand that documentation is required and part of the assignment.
Without proper citations and format, the assignment will FAIL.
Use your English handbook (
Easy Writer
, for example), an Online Writing Lab (OWL), or
the APA style manual. Also, Microsoft Word will help with proper format.
What to Document
Here’s the question: If you don’t know ANY information on the topic, do you have to
cite every sentence? No. Here’s the deal.
First of all, you should have
knowledge of the topic, and should have
authority in your voice. (I tell students to adopt this persona Here’s what I
believe, and So-and-so, an expert in the field also says so.) Thus, the student is
in control of the text, adding researched information for emphasis.
Second, remember that paraphrasing needs to be cited. The best way to cover
the bases is to try to work the source’s name into the text. Also, when quoting
directly, try to lead in to the quote for clarity and consistency.
Third, it’s always better to over-cite than not cite enough. If that requires three
different citations in the same paragraph, so be it. Revise later.
What follows is a model speech outline with proper documentation.

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Demonstration Speech:
Making Chris Cheese
Sarah Student
Mr. Public speaking
My University

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I. Introduction
A. Opening: Have you ever heard of Boursin? It’s a specialty cheese that is
quite expensive. According to
, A 4.4 oz portion is $9.60
B. Rather than spending so much money, I recommend making your own
herbed cheese. I’ve been doing this for many years, and the basic recipe has
remained the same. I call my product Chris Cheese.
II. What You’ll Need
A. The ingredients are:
1. 1 log of goat cheese, softened. Get it at the supermarket, usually
in the specialty cheese section (near the deli at Wal-Mart and Publix).
2. 1 package of regular cream or Neufchatel cheese, softened
3. 1 clove of garlic, peeled
4. A small bunch of herbs, cleaned of dirt and debris. I have an herb
garden in which I grow my own, but you can buy fresh herbs in the
produce section of any food store. Today, I have two kinds of thyme,
oregano, sweet basil, and flat-leaf Italian parsley.
B. The equipment you’ll need:
1. Kitchen shears
2. A food processor. I love my Kitchen Aid.
3. A small spatula
4. An air-tight container for storage
III. Here’s how to make Chris Cheese. It’s really easy.
A. First, open and cut the cream cheese in half, putting each half in the
B. Next, do the same thing with the goat cheese.
C. Drop in your garlic

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