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Introductory Microbiology (Clinical) 2




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Introductory Microbiology (clinical version)
Module 2
Virulence: ability of a pathogen to invade and infect the host, cause damage, and
produce disease
Why infection may not occur:
1. Can land in an inappropriate area
2. Many pathogens must attach to a specific host receptor site in order to
multiply and cause damage
3. Antibacterial factors present
4. Indigenous microflora may inhibit the growth and development of foreign
5. Indigenous microbes may produce antomicrobial factors
6. Antibodies from previous infection present
7. Phagocytes can destroy invaders before infection can occur
8. Inoculating dose may be required
Disease process
1. Source/reservoir
a. Non-living: air, soil, water, fomites
b. Living: people, zoonotic disease, insects
2. Portal of exit
a. Fomite
b. Food
c. Flies
d. Fecal
e. Fingers
3. Mode of transmission (direct or indirect)
4. Portal of entry
Attaches to tissue, multiplies
Deeper invasion (enzymes), cause tissue damage (toxins, lysins), illness
(convalescence, death)
Iatrogenic, occurs as a result of treatment doctor enduced
Course of infection:

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- Incubation period to first symptoms
- Prodromal period out of sorts
- Appearance of symptoms acute, obvious
- Convalescence recovery
Increase in virulence
- Capsules
- Flagella
- Pili/fimbriae
Invaisive enzymes
- Coagulase clot plasma to form a sticky coat
- Kinase dissolve clot
- Hyaluronidase spread through connective tissue
- Collagenase decrease collagen
Bacterial toxins
- Hemolysis
- Leukocidin
- Lecithinase – breakdown of phospholipids
- Exotoxins – target specific organs
- Endotoxins – in cell walls of gram negative bacteria
Endemic= constantly present in a population
Epidemic= in a community for the first time
Pandemic= world wide epidemic
Sporadic= flare ups
Isolation categories
1. Protective Isolation: sterile, positive pressure
2. Source Isolation: contagious patient, HEPA filter, negative pressure
3. Contact/Droplet precautions: wear gloves and gowns
4. Airborne precautions: negative air, HEPA filter, N95, gowns

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Order of PPE (putting on)
1. Gown
2. Mask
3. Goggles
4. Gloves
Order of PPE (taking off)
1. Gloves
2. Gown
3. Goggles
4. Mask
Sterilization: complete destruction of all living organism, cells, spores, and viruses
Disinfection: removal of pathogens from non-living surfaces
Antiseptic: disinfect the skin
Sanitization: reduction of microbial populations in accordance to hospital standards
Factors of Microbe Death
a) Size of microbial population
b) Time of exposure
c) Intensity of agnet
d) Type and age of microbe
e) Properties of contaminated material
f) Environmental conditions
Most Virulent:
1. Prions
2. Bacterial spores
3. Myobacteria
4. Non-lipid Viruses

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