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The decision making process

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Running Head: DECISION MAKING 1
Decision making
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The decision making process
Introduction
Decision making is a process of choosing from different possible alternatives to make a
decision. Decision making process can be based on explicit or assumptions that involve
underlying agreements that are made from logical arguments.
A manager carries out his managerial functions by making decisions. Managers
frequently make decisions pertaining different situations in the organization. The appropriate
decision making process depends on the availability of accurate information to the appropriate
individuals at an appropriate time. Defining the problem starts immediately when the manager
identifies a problem. If the problem is wrongly defined then it affects the remaining steps.one
way a manager can identify a problem is by separating the symptoms from the problem
identified. For example a low profit symptom could be an underlying problem of poor market

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2
DECISION MAKING
research. The symptoms do indicate that something is amiss in the organization. A manager
works to discover the factors causing these symptoms (Schwenk, 1995).
The second step is identifying any limiting factors.in order to make good decisions;
managers must have the necessary resources at their disposal. For instance, they may lack the
time or limited budgets that push them to making quick decisions that is not satisfactory. A
proper solving technique involves thorough analysis of the problem and a fast answer does not
solve the problem.
Possible alternatives are then developed in the third step. Brainstorming is a method to
generate ideas and solutions to potential problems. This is where participants gather to generate
ideas and explore alternative solutions. The other method is the nominal group techniques a
meeting is constituted comprising of an agenda which restricts discussions during the decision
making process. The Delphi technique involves participants filing written questioners to
contribute their input in the decision making process. This step helps the manager to weigh the
pros and cons of each idea before arriving at a final decision.
Guo (2008) explains that Alternatives are then evaluated in which Managers weigh the
merits and demerits of every alternative. A thorough cost-benefit analysis is done to each and
every alternative. Each factor is weighed based on its importance in decision-making. Every
alternative is ranked based on the factors ability to meet every factor, and then multiplication is
done with a probability factor to give the final figure for every alternative. Each alternative is
evaluated based on its feasibility, effectiveness, and consequences.
All alternatives are analyzed and the best is selected. He must decide on that one that
produces the most cons and few disadvantages. The manager thereafter implements the decision
chosen. Positive results are expected from every decision. People involved in the decision need
to know their role in ensuring a successful outcome. Therefore managers need to devise
procedures, rules, and programs to help them in the decision making process.

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3
DECISION MAKING
A control and evaluation system is established to monitor the ongoing actions. A proper
evaluation system provides feedback on how good the decision is being implemented.it evaluates
the results and necessary adjustments are made to get the results expected when solutions are
chosen.
PROACT Model
Managers face different complex decisions. Problems that they try to solve can be
approached from different angles. There are always conflicting goals and trade-off to be made.in
addressing these decision problems in a more rational manner there key elements to be
considered. These elements are:
Problem Define the problem carefully
Objectives Consider a comprehensive list of objectives
Alternatives Identify alternatives
Consequences Understanding the consequences of each
alternative
Trade-offs Addressing tradeoffs
Problem identification is the first step towards making a good decision. Framing your
problem in the right direction helps you in determining the various alternatives you will put into
consideration and how you will evaluate them. The next step is specifying your objectives which
will act as the basis for evaluating the alternatives.to make the final decision, you need to have
alternatives. Consequences of each alternative are analyzed after generating them. Decision
makers choose alternatives that address the outlined objectives. Once you have generated the
alternatives that address your objectives, you must understand the consequences of each
alternative. For example, manual removal of pest might be considered as an effective way of
controlling pest in some areas but it has been expensive in other areas where it is being
implemented.in contrast, using a natural predator might be inexpensive but violates one outlined
objective, which could be preventing the introduction of another exotic species to the ecosystem.

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