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Describe how antibodies can cooperate with innate defense
mechanism in order to eliminate a threat.
Solution
Innate defense mechanism is the method of response by
which the immune cells or molecules acts against the
pathogen or antigens non specifically to remmove or kill
them. The antibodies are the part of aquired or adaptive
immune mechanism but these molecules cooperate with the
molecules or cells of the innate immunity and hleps in
removal of pathogens. They cooperate in following way:
1. Complement Activation: Complement proteins are the part
of innate defense mechanism which works non specifically
against the cellular pathogen, the antibody when binds at the
surface of these cellular antigens or pathogens, they activate
the comlement system and form the membrane attack
complex for target cell lysis.
2. Antibody Mediated Phagocytosis: The phagocytic cells
nonspecifically attach at the surface of pathogen to engulf
them to kill and remove them from the body but its slow
process to recognize them and attach to carry out the
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phagocytosis. When an antibody binds to antigen or
pathogen increases the probability and frequency to get
phagocytosed by phagocytic due to presence receptors for Fc
portion of antibody known as antibody mediated
phagocytosis.
3. Opsonization and clearance of immune complex: The
antigen antibody and complement complexes are filtered out
by phagocytic cells by the process of opsonization which also
cooperated by binding of antibody with antigen as well as
complement proteins.

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Describe how antibodies can cooperate with innate defense mechanism in order to eliminate a threat. Solution Innate defense mechanism is the method of response by which the immune cells or molecules acts against the pathogen or antigens non specifically to remmove or kill them. The antibodies are the part of aquired or adaptive immune mechanism but these molecules cooperate with the molecules or cells of the innate immunity and hleps in removal of pathogens. They cooperate in following way: 1. Complement Activation: Complement proteins are the part of innate defense mechanism which works non specifically against the cellular pathogen, the antibody when binds at the surface of these cellular antigens or pathogens, they activate the comlement system and form the membrane attack complex for target cell lysis. 2. Antibody Mediated Phagocytosis: The phagocytic cells nonspecifically attach at the surface of pathogen to engulf them to kill and remove them from the body but its slow process to recognize them and attach to carry out the phagocytosis. When an antibody binds to antigen or pathogen increases the probability and frequency to get phagocytosed by phagocytic due to presence receptors for Fc portion of antibody known as antibody mediated phagocytosis. 3. Opsonization and clearance of immune complex: The antigen antibody and complement complexes are filtered out by phagocytic cells by the process of opsonization which also cooperated by binding of antibody with antigen as well as complement proteins. Name: Description: ...
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