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microbe_produced_fuels

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This should be a thoughtful opening statement speech that demonstrates your
knowledge of this field. In your statement to the committee, please include the
following:
1. a summary of the different types of microbe-produced fuels currently
available, and
2. a persuasive argument to support further funding for research and
development of a microbe-produced fuel (pick one) that you have
determined to be the most viable as an alternative to fossil fuels.
A collaboration led by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Joint
BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) has developed a microbe that can produce an advanced
biofuel directly from biomass. Deploying the tools of synthetic biology, the JBEI
researchers engineered a strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria to produce
biodiesel fuel and other important chemicals derived from fatty acids.
“The fact that our microbes can produce a diesel fuel directly from biomass with
no additional chemical modifications is exciting and important,” says Jay Keasling,
the Chief Executive Officer for JBEI, and a leading scientific authority on
synthetic biology. “Given that the costs of recovering biodiesel are nowhere near

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the costs required to distill ethanol, we believe our results can significantly
contribute to the ultimate goal of producing scalable and cost effective advanced
biofuels and renewable chemicals.”
Keasling led the collaboration, which was was made up of a team from JBEI’s
Fuels Synthesis Division that included Eric Steen, Yisheng Kang and Gregory
Bokinsky, and a team from LS9, a privately-held industrial biotechnology firm
based in South San Francisco. The LS9 team was headed by Stephen del Cardayre
and included Zhihao Hu, Andreas Schirmer and Amy McClure. The collaboration
has published the results of their research in the January 28, 2010 edition of the
journal Nature. The paper is titled, “Microbial Production of Fatty Acid-Derived
Fuels and Chemicals from Plant Biomass.”
A combination of ever-increasing energy costs and global warming concerns has
created an international imperative for new transportation fuels that are renewable
and can be produced in a sustainable fashion. Scientific studies have consistently
shown that liquid fuels derived from plant biomass are one of the best alternatives
if a cost-effective means of commercial production can be found. Major research
efforts to this end are focused on fatty acids the energy-rich molecules in living
cells that have been dubbed nature’s petroleum.
Fuels and chemicals have been produced from the fatty acids in plant and animal
oils for more than a century. These oils now serve as the raw materials not only for
biodiesel fuel, but also for a wide range of important chemical products including
surfactants, solvents and lubricants.
“The increased demand and limited supply of these oils has resulted in competition
with food, higher prices, questionable land-use practices and environmental
concerns associated with their production,” Keasling says. “A more scalable,
controllable, and economic alternative route to these fuels and chemicals would be
through the microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks, such as biomass-
derived carbohydrates.”
E. coli is a well-studied microorganism whose natural ability to synthesize fatty
acids and exceptional amenability to genetic manipulation make it an ideal target
for biofuels research. The combination of E. coli with new biochemical reactions
realized through synthetic biology, enabled Keasling, Steen and their colleagues to

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produce structurally tailored fatty esters (biodiesel), alcohols and waxes directly
from simple sugars.
“Biosynthesis of microbial fatty acids produces fatty acids bound to a carrier
protein, the accumulation of which inhibits the making of additional fatty acids,”
Steen says. “Normally E. coli doesn’t waste energy making excess fat, but by
cleaving fatty acids from their carrier proteins, we’re able to unlock the natural
regulation and make an abundance of fatty acids that can be converted into a
number of valuable products. Further, we engineered our E. coli to no longer eat
fatty acids or use them for energy.”
After successfully diverting fatty acid metabolism toward the production of fuels
and other chemicals from glucose, the JBEI researchers engineered their new strain
of E. coli to produce hemicellulases enzymes that are able to ferment
hemicellulose, the complex sugars that are a major constituent of cellulosic
biomass and a prime repository for the energy locked within plant cell walls.
“Engineering E. coli to produce hemicellulases enables the microbes to produce
fuels directly from the biomass of plants that are not used as food for humans or
feed for animals,” Steen says. “Currently, biochemical processing of cellulosic
biomass requires costly enzymes for sugar liberation. By giving the E. coli the
capacity to ferment both cellulose and hemicellulose without the addition of
expensive enzymes, we can improve the economics of cellulosic biofuels.”
The JBEI team is now working on maximizing the efficiency and the speed by
which their engineered strain of E. coli can directly convert biomass into biodiesel.
They are also looking into ways of maximizing the total amount of biodiesel that
can be produced from a single fermentation.
“Productivity, titer and efficient conversion of feedstock into fuelare the three most
important factors for engineering microbes that can produce biofuels on an
industrial scale,” Steen says. “There is still much more research to do before this
process becomes commercially feasible.”
For more information about JBEI, visit the Website at http://www.jbei.org
For more information about the research group of Jay Keasling, visit:
thehttp://keaslinglab.lbl.gov/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

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