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Genetically modified organism (GMO) and their advantages

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Genetically modified organism (GMO) and their advantages
Genetically modified organisms are produced through the combination of genetic engineering
and biotechnology. GMOs are produced through combinations of genes from different organisms
and altering the genetic makeup of plants, animals and bacteria.
This technology usually used to produce genetically modified crops with increase nutritional
value, increased antibiotic resistance, increased production value etc.
GMO crops can be produces in different ways as follows:
1. Agrobacterium t- DNA mediated transformation:
Agrobacterium tumefaciens cause crown gall disease by transferring its plasmid DNA called T-
DNA in plants & thus acts as a natural vector for transformation of one trait from one plant to
another.
As T-DNA contains some oncogenes it causes tumor formation in infected plants. So before
using as transfer vectors it is first disarmed in which all the oncogenes are deleted except right
and left border and vir gene sequences which are required for gene transfer.
This occurs in following way

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Note: For the screening of transfomed plant cell T- DNA is modifie substituting by a selectable
marker such as kanamycin resistant gene.Those plant cells that take up the appropriate DNA &
express the selectable marker will suvive in the presence of that antibiotic & form a callus with
new trait.

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Other methods include:
2. Ballistics or gene gun
3.Electroporation
4. Chemical and/or heat treatment
Applications of GMOs:
1. Development of insect, virus, herbicide resistant plants:
Insect resistance:
Through genetic engineering insect resistant crops can be produced which increase the
production rate of crops. Several strategies have been used to confer resistance against insect
predators. One approach involves insertion of prototoxin insectide encoding gene of bacterium
B. thuringienis into the genome of crops. Plants with this foreign gene in their genome are able
to express the insecticidal toxin that prevents the insects from eating those plants.
B. thuringienis, during sporulation, forms intracellular crystalline bodies that contain an
insecticidal protein called δ- endotoxin. δ- endotoxin protein (cryI.cryII, cryII etc.) accumulates
in the bacterium as an inactive precursor. After ingestion by the insect this prototoxin is cleaved
by proteases, sorter version of the protein is active and display toxic activity and binds the
insect’s gut ant damage the surface epithelium.
Viral resistance:
Through several process like introduction of coat protein gene, ribozyme-mediated protection,
antisense RNA approach etc viral resistance crops can be produced. Transgenic plants having a
virus coat protein gene liked to a strong promoter have been produced in many crop plants such

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Genetically modified organism (GMO) and their advantagesGenetically modified organisms are produced through the combination of genetic engineering and biotechnology. GMOs are produced through combinations of genes from different organisms and altering the genetic makeup of plants, animals and bacteria. This technology usually used to produce genetically modified crops with increase nutritional value, increased antibiotic resistance, increased production value etc.GMO crops can be produces in different ways as follows:1. Agrobacterium t- DNA mediated transformation:Agrobacterium tumefaciens cause crown gall disease by transferring its plasmid DNA called T-DNA in plants & thus acts as a natural vector for transformation of one trait from one plant to another.As T-DNA contains some oncogenes it causes tumor formation in infected plants. So before using as transfer vectors it is first disarmed in which all the oncogenes are deleted except right and left border and vir gene sequences which are required for gene transfer.This occurs in following wayNote: For the screening of transfomed plant cell T- DNA is modifie substituting by a selectable marker such as kanamycin resistant gene.Those plant cells that take up the appropriate DNA & express the selectable marker will suvive in the presence of that antibiotic & form a callus with new trait.Other methods include:2. Ballistics or gene gun3.Electroporation 4. Chemical and/or heat treatmentApplications of GMOs:1. De ...
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