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Probation 1 Probation Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Probation 2 Parole or probation is a court order that places a criminal defendant under the control, supervision, and care of a parole officer instead of imprisonment provided the probationer accepts to meet specific conditions set by the court. This paper analyzes the history of parole while identifying key trends and court cases that have shaped the policy. Historical Analysis Probation has a long history in the American Justice system, with John Augustus from Boston, credited with its inception (Labrecque, 2017). He helped nearly 2000 minor offenders by posting their bail and fines, helped them get employment than reported their progress to the court during court hearings involving the individuals. In 1876, Augustus' home state of Massachusetts became the first to pass a probation statute whereas al the remaining 50 states and the federal government, adopted juvenile and probation laws by 1956. Through the correctional philosophy of rehabilitation, probation became a means through which offenders would avoid imprisonment. They would remain in the community, and support dependents, make restitution, retain employment, and take part in health programs. Trends In the 1970's however, probation policies were heavily challenged that resulted in the adoption of punitive policies. Consequently, this resulted in a hike in prisoners' numbers in incarceration centers (Labrecque, 2017; Phelps, 2013). Interestingly, t ...
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