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WORLD WAR 1 - WORLD HISTORY

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WORLD WAR I
Introduction
The twentieth century ushered in a veritable ‘era of conflicts’ in different parts of
the world. During 1894-95, the Sino-Japanese War took place, resulting in the
victory of Japan over China. The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) soon followed
in the Far East leading to the complete defeat of Russia. In 1905, the Russian
Revolution transformed the ancient Tzarist autocracy into a Constitutional
Monarchy. The "young Turks" under the leadership of Mustapha Kemal Ataturk
Pasha, the father of modern Turkey, carried out a revolution in the Ottoman
Empire in 1908-1909. In 1911, Italy seized the Ottoman provinces of Tripoli and
Cyrenaica. This led to the two Balkan Wars, which involved Austria-Hungary,
Russia, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and the Ottoman Empire as well, the Balkan
countries like Serbia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Albania, and Montenegro, Bosnia and
Herzegovina. Great national and international rivalry was provoked by these
Balkan wars, which formed one of the important underlying causes of World War
I (1914-1918).
The Course of World War I
With the news of the murder of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his
wife, Austria decided to crush Serbia with the support of Germany. An ultimatum
was served to Serbia by Austria, which made certain demands on her. When
Serbia refused to comply with these demands, Austria declared war with the
defaulting country on July 20, 1914. The next day, orders of mobilization were
issued by Germany and also by Russia. Germany declared war on France on
August 3, 1914. After Germany’s invasion of Belgium on August 4, 1914, England
declared war against Germany.
During the early phase of the war, which included the Battle of Verdun, events
moved in favor of the Allies. In early 1915, Italy and Rumania joined the Allies.
The year 1917 marked a turning point in the course of the war. After being
defeated by the Germans, the Russians were highly demoralized. In 1917, they
revolted against the Czar and established a Republic. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
was signed with Germany, by the new government in March 1918.
The war at sea was also in favor of the Allies. However Germany’s position grew
stronger with the collapse of Russia. Germany began to manufacture ‘U-boats’ on
a large scale and began a submarine warfare.
The German submarines then began to destroy the British battleships as well as
the American merchant ships. Hence the U.S.A. declared war against Germany on
April 6, 1971. U.S.A.’s entry into the war turned the war in favor of the Allies.
Finally Germany surrendered in November 1918, on the basis of the Fourteen
Points, announced by President Woodrow Wilson of the U.S.A. An armistice was
signed on November 11, 1918.

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The Paris Peace Conference was held in January 1919 in order to end the war.
However only the representatives of the victorious states attended the Peace
Conference. The defeated states were not represented. Among the most
important members of the Conference were the "Big Four" namely Clemenceau,
the Prime Minister of France (known as the ‘Tiger’ of France), Lloyd George, the
Prime Minister of England,
Woodrow Wilson, the President of the U.S.A.; and Orlando of Italy. An army of
secretaries, historians, geographers, financiers and other experts assisted the
delegates at the council.
Finally the delegates, namely, drew up five treaties,
Versailles with Germany,
St. Germain with Austria,
Trianon with Hungary,
Nevilly with Bulgaria, and
Sevres with Turkey.
Since the defeated states were forced to sign these treaties, it was also
known as a "dictated peace."
Consequences of World War I
Revolutionary changes were brought about by World War I in all forms of social
life, as well as in all modes of thinking. The war produced consequences of
worldwide significance. World War I caused a terrible loss of human life and
property. It involved practically all the countries of Europe and the U.S.A., as well
as most of the African and Asian states. Nine million men were killed, and
twenty-nine million men were wounded or missing. Thirteen million died on
account of civilian massacres, disease and famine, which overtook the world, as a
consequence of the Great War. The financial cost of the Great War was estimated
to have been about 400 billion dollars.
By the Treaty of Versailles, Germany surrendered
The provinces of Alsace and Lorraine and the coal mines of the Saar basin
to France
Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium
Memel to Lithuania
Northern Schleswig to Denmark

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WORLD WAR IIntroductionThe twentieth century ushered in a veritable 'era of conflicts' in different parts of the world. During 1894-95, the Sino-Japanese War took place, resulting in the victory of Japan over China. The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) soon followed in the Far East leading to the complete defeat of Russia. In 1905, the Russian Revolution transformed the ancient Tzarist autocracy into a Constitutional Monarchy. The "young Turks" under the leadership of Mustapha Kemal Ataturk Pasha, the father of modern Turkey, carried out a revolution in the Ottoman Empire in 1908-1909. In 1911, Italy seized the Ottoman provinces of Tripoli and Cyrenaica. This led to the two Balkan Wars, which involved Austria-Hungary, Russia, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and the Ottoman Empire as well, the Balkan countries like Serbia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Albania, and Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Great national and international rivalry was provoked by these Balkan wars, which formed one of the important underlying causes of World War I (1914-1918).The Course of World War IWith the news of the murder of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Austria decided to crush Serbia with the support of Germany. An ultimatum was served to Serbia by Austria, which made certain demands on her. When Serbia refused to comply with these demands, Austria declared war with the defaulting country on July 20, 1914. The next day, orders of mobilization were issued by Germany and also by ...
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