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BEH 225 Complete course DQ


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BEH 225 Complete course DQ’s
Week 1 DQ 1
Consider the statement “psychology has a long past but a short history.” What do you think
this means? In your opinion, which person or perspective has had the most influence on the
growth of psychology?
In my opinion the statement “psychology has a long past but a short history” is telling us that
psychology has been around for a long time but just recently has been the subject of study and
Psychology got its start with Plato and his suggestion that the brain is the mechanism of
mental process back in 387 BC (Before Christ) and has continued on throughout history. There
have been many names contributed to the science of psychology such as Franz Mesmer; he
introduced hypnosis into the medical field saying it had a curative agent in 1774. Then of course
there was Charles Darwin, 1859, who published “On the Origin of Species” expanding on the
theory of ‘survival of the fittest’. One other who contributed to psychology is Wilhelm Wundt,
1879, who established the beginning of the study of human emotions, behaviors and cognitions.
We also have to acknowledge Sigmund Freud who marked the beginning of the personality
Throughout our history there have been great scientists associated with this field of study, to
try and determine what the defining point was for psychology was is mind boggling. If it was not
for the contribution from all of these people where would we be now? Personally my favorite
contribution to the field of psychology would have to be the original development of the IQ test
by William Stern in 1912. With this little mathematical equation it is possible to measure
someone’s intelligence; this proves very helpful for determining if one has a learning disability
or has an increased learning ability. Psychology became its own field through the works of
Wilhelm Wundt, a German physiological psychology teacher. In 1867 he taught his first course
physiological psychology and in 1873 he published the very first book on psychology Principles
of Physiological Psychology which was the changing point. These events brought about the
separation of psychology and made it a field apart from the others.
Week 1 DQ 2
How do you think gender, race, and ethnicity have affected your behavior? Provide an
example from your life where you have observed people from different ethnic backgrounds or
genders behaving differently in the same situation.
Ever since I was a young child I have never looked dierently and anyone regardless of whom
they were. When it comes to gender, race and ethnicity I treat everyone the same, this might be
why I get along with all the people I meet. The only me I believe one should be treated
dierently is if they are rude or hold prejudice against another human being. These people need
to be cast out from our society without the opon of returning.

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I have had encounters with individuals who show these characteriscs of being prejudice
towards others. I live in an area that is mostly Hispanic Americans and have been judged
because I am not. This does not mean that I am going to retaliate, it just means that I need to
prove them we are not dierent, only our ethnicity. By doing this I have made countless friends
and some have even become the Godparents of my children. One key element of proving that
we are not dierent was learning their nave language; this allows me to communicate be'er
and without the problem of miscommunicaon.
Week 3 DQ 1
Provide one example each of classical and operant conditioning in your own life. Identify
either the stimulus and response or reinforcers in each case. Which type would you prefer for
learning and why?
During my childhood the best example of classical conditioning I can think of would be that of
my dad and his dog training techniques. Since my dad is an avid hunter he needs to have dogs
that literally live for the hunt. The best way for him to have dogs that think this way is to train
them to his expectations and not someone else’s. In order to do this he starts the dogs training
when they are very young, around five months old. The first step is to take away the fear of the
animal when they hear my dad shoot his rifles; this is the first step in the training. Day after day
my dad would take this small dog up above his house on the area we call the ‘flat’. There he
would start by giving the dog a piece of venison (the stimulus), then shoot his gun, give the dog
another piece, and shoot his gun and so on. After a few day of this the dog was as at peace when
he heard the gun shoot just as he would be if he was still cuddled up against his mother. This
would go on for about a week, after that my dad would just take the dog up to the flat and shot
his guns without giving anything to the dog.
After my dad takes away the dog’s fear of the gun being fired he moves on to probably the
hardest part, keeping the dog quite and giving only visual signs during their hunt, this requires
him to use operant conditioning. In order to keep a dog at bay my dad uses operant conditioning.
During the first few years of the dog’s life as a hunter my dad uses what is called a ‘shock caller
(reinforces). This collar delivers a small electrical shock to the dog when they are behaving in a
fashion my dad deems unfavorable for the hunt. For the visual signals my dad points to an area
he wants the dog to go, then he walks the dog in the direction until they pick up this command. If
the dog decides to bark they are given a short but very affective shock by the collar. The collar is
sensitive to the change in the dog’s throat, when the dog barks the collar automatically gives a
shock. When they are hunting the collar works in the same way, thus training the dog not to bark
while hunting unless they want to be corrected.
Personally for myself I would like to learn by the classical conditioning, less corrective action
is taken against one that way. However the reality of life is that we usually are brought up by
operant conditioning. This is, clean your room or you will be washing dishes for a month, or,
stop picking on your brother or I will have your dad spank you when he gets home. After awhile
of these types of ‘threats’ coming true one stops doing what is considered wrong by their parents,
especially if we are told to.
Week 3 DQ 2

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Think about the last time you attended a lecture or were in a classroom. Applying the
information processing model, why did some things make it into your short-term memory and
some things into your long-term memory? How can knowing this process increase your
learning potential? How would you reduce the likelihood of forgetting important information?
Most of my short term memories are things that I am focusing on at that moment. Since our short
term memory can retain only a small amount of data most things will never be remembered. In
order for me to retain things I usually need to see it over and over again. One thing that does
baffle me is that fact that if I read something I can usually remember it for a long time to come.
However, I do not remember the characters names or places very well, only the story line and
what happens in the story.
One of my favorite books is called ‘The Christ Clone Trilogy’ and I have only read it once
about three years ago and I can still remember most of the characters names and the places they
visited. I relate this to the author using biblical names for most of them and of course the places
they visited are well known. Although the book is based on religious fiction I can still recall the
stories plot, and even the high emotions I had while reading them.
Those moments in time that are moved to my long term memory are usually triggered by
other events or memories that I already have in my long term memory, things that I had been
taught over and over again as a child. For me I think I learn best if I can read what it is that I am
supposed to learn, visual stimulus seems to be ineffective for my learning process. If I can see
something over and over and over again than I have a better chance of remembering what it was
but if I see it only once I will forget it. I have that problem with people’s faces, I can remember
their names but I can never remember their faces unless I see them all the time. As I mentioned
before if I really need to remember something I need to write it down and read it over, that way I
will remember what it is that I need to remember.
Week 5 DQ 1
Based on what you have learned regarding expressions and emotion in Ch. 9, discuss the
following scenario: Referring to the graphic, what do you think the person in the picture is
feeling? How do you think a person of a different gender or different ethnicity might react
differently to this same situation?
The lady portrayed in this picture is showing signs of conditioned fear. A fear response
that was probably conditioned through movies, TV programs and past and present news
related articles of women being violated and killed by male and female predators. In my
opinion most women and some men regardless of ethnicity would feel the same
emotion when presented with a situation such as this. Some things that could change
the reaction of both men and women is their ability to defend themselves or if they have
no fear of the unknown.
Week 5 DQ 2
Using the table on p. 421 of your text, what defense mechanisms have you noticed in the
people around you? What do you see as the advantages and disadvantages of these defense
The main defense mechanism I have seen in people around me and myself included is denial.
When I was informed that my mother was terminally ill and that I needed to return home as soon
as possible I fell into this state. I was trying to deny that my mother could actually be sick

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