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Lesson 5 quality and tqm

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Lesson 5 Quality and TQM
Lesson Objectives
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
1. Identify the dimensions of quality; and
2. Define total quality management.
Quality
- Has been defined by many notable persons and institutions. The term itself may be
applied to several contexts such as, quality of product, quality of service, quality of work,
and even quality of life. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defined
quality as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics of an object fulfils
requirements, requirements being needs and expectations. From this, quality can be said
to be subjective since each person has his or her own set of needs and expectations.
- Quality can be observed through the eyes of the customers. It is important to know
customer needs and expectations first, and then exceed those expectations. This could
help in establishing positive relationships with the customers to create
loyaltyandcaptureabiggermarketshare.Qualitycanbeattainedbythenonstop improvement of
all systems and processes in the organization, not simply the
productionofproductsandservicesbutalsothedesign,development,service, purchasing,
administration and indeed, all aspects of the transaction with the customer (Serrano,
2016).
Needs
- Essential for life
Wants
- What we would like to have but not practical
Requirements
- What we request of others and may encompass our needs and may include wants
- Often we do not fully realize what we need until after we have made our request
Expectations
- Implied needs or requirements - we regard them to be understood within our particular
society as the accepted nom
- May be things to which we are accustomed
Desires
- Our innermost feelings about ourselves and our surroundings
- What we would like most.

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External Customers
- People outside our organization who pay for our products and services
Internal Customers
- Stakeholders who work within our company
Types of Quality of Design
- This is about what the product or service must at least possess so customer requirements
will be satisfied. That is why the product or service must be designed to meet the needs of
the consumer. At the same time, the design should be simple and less expensive to meet
customer expectations. Factors such as product type and reliability, product demand, and
cost are some factors that influence design quality.
A. Quality of Conformance
- Quality of conformance is basically meeting the standards defined in the design phase
after the product is manufactured or while the service is delivered. Three broad
aspects are covered in this definition: defect detection, defect root cause analysis, and
defect prevention. Defect prevention deals with the means to deter the occurrence of
defects, which is usually achieved using statistical process control techniques.
Detecting defects may be by inspection, testing or statistical data analysis collected
from process. Subsequently, the root causes behind the presence of defects are
investigated, and finally corrective actions are taken to prevent recurrence of the
defect.
B. Quality of Performance
- It measures the degree to which the product or service satisfies the customer from the
perspective of both quality of design and the quality of conformance. Quality of
performance is how well the product functions or service performs when put to use.
This is about meeting customer expectation. If product or service does not live up to
customer expectation, then adjustments are needed in the design or conformance
phase.

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Lesson 5 Quality and TQM Lesson Objectives At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. Identify the dimensions of quality; and 2. Define total quality management. Quality - - Has been defined by many notable persons and institutions. The term itself may be applied to several contexts such as, quality of product, quality of service, quality of work, and even quality of life. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defined quality as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics of an object fulfils requirements, requirements being needs and expectations. From this, quality can be said to be subjective since each person has his or her own set of needs and expectations. Quality can be observed through the eyes of the customers. It is important to know customer needs and expectations first, and then exceed those expectations. This could help in establishing positive relationships with the customers to create loyaltyandcaptureabiggermarketshare.Qualitycanbeattainedbythenonstop improvement of all systems and processes in the organization, not simply the productionofproductsandservicesbutalsothedesign,development,service, purchasing, administration and indeed, all aspects of the transaction with the customer (Serrano, 2016). Needs - Essential for life Wants - What we would like to have but not practical Requirements - What we request of others and may encompass our needs and may include wants Often we do not fully realize what we need until a ...
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