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Study Guide for General Biology - Part 1

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TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE
Chapter 1:
1
1. Be familiar with materials available for course (Sakai).
2. Describe the properties of life (book).
Order (structure)
Reproduction
Growth & development
Energy processing
Response to environment (stimuli)
Regulation (of internal environment)
Evolutionary Adaptations
3. Formulate testable hypotheses & design controlled experiments.
Hypothesis: must be testable and falsifiable
Deductive reasoning: general premises to specific results
Gains credibility by surviving multiple attempts to falsify
Alternative hypotheses eliminated by testing
Contraint: if…then…
ONE independent variable, one dependent variable
Controlled experiment: experimental group and control group that only
differ by ONE factor
4. Compare dynamics of nutrients and energy in an ecosystem.
Producers: provide food for ecosystem (plants)
Consumers: eat other plants and animals
Decomposers: small animals, fungi, and bacteria in soil that decompose
waste change complex matter into simpler mineral nutrients that plants
can use
Major processes: recycling of chemical nutrients (CO2, H2O, O2, minerals)
and energy flow (light (sunlight) heat (chemical energy))
Matter is recyclable, energy is a one way flow. Energy stored in bonds
between ADP and P in ATP (how ATP carries energy) to use it, P breaks off
and goes to wherever cell needs it to go. ATP is NOT the energy, just carries it.
(cellular respiration) (glycolysis, citric acid cycle, phosphorylation)

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5. Describe levels of biological organization from molecules to the biosphere,
noting the interrelationships between levels.
Biosphere (all of environments on earth)
Ecosystem (all of organisms/components with which they interact in an area)
Community (array of organisms in ecosystem)
Population (individuals of species in area)
Organism
Organ System (several organs that cooperate in function)
Organ
Tissues
Cell
Organelle
Molecule
Chapter 3:
6. Explain how a cell can make large molecules from a small set of molecules.
Organic compounds: carbon based molecules (4 covalent bonds that can
branch in up to 4 different directions)
Macromolecules: huge molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic
acids

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TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1: 1 1. Be familiar with materials available for course (Sakai). 2. Describe the properties of life (book). Order (structure) Reproduction Growth & development Energy processing Response to environment (stimuli) Regulation (of internal environment) Evolutionary Adaptations 3. Formulate testable hypotheses & design controlled experiments. Hypothesis: must be testable and falsifiable Deductive reasoning: general premises to specific results Gains credibility by surviving multiple attempts to falsify Alternative hypotheses eliminated by testing Contraint: if?then? ONE independent variable, one dependent variable Controlled experiment: experimental group and control group that only differ by ONE factor 4. Compare dynamics of nutrients and energy in an ecosystem. Producers: provide food for ecosystem (plants) Consumers: eat other plants and animals Decomposers: small animals, fungi, and bacteria in soil that decompose waste ? change complex matter into simpler mineral nutrients that plants can use Major processes: recycling of chemical nutrients (CO2, H2O, O2, minerals) and energy flow (light (sunlight)? heat (chemical energy)) Matter is recyclable, energy is a one way flow. Energy stored in bonds between ADP and P in ATP (how ATP carries energy) to use it, P breaks off and goes to wherever cell needs it to go. ATP is NOT the energy, just carries it. (cellular respiration) (glycolysis, citric acid cycle, phosphorylation) ...
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