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week 9 Capstone Discussion Question

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Urbanization Trends 1
Urbanization Trends
Dawnette Dunkley
Axia College of University of Phoenix

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Urbanization Trends 2
Urbanization Trends
Urbanization is the concentration of people into cities; it is basically about population
redistribution within a society as it relates to the changing patterns of social life. High
concentration of jobs for professionals and skilled workers as well as lack of employment
opportunities in rural areas, are usually responsible for urbanization trends. These urban growth
trends have much to do with developing countries moving away from economies that depend on
agriculture; this factor has many farmers and their children seeking industrial work instead. The
problem for people living in rural areas is that most of these industrial jobs locate in and around
major cities, forcing rural families to move away from rural areas, causing overpopulation in
urban areas.
The city of Sao Paulo, Brazil is one such urban area; as the second largest city in the world,
Sao Paulo is home to approximately five million people living in favelas, slums, shanty towns,
and urban sprawl (Henkin, 1999). Part of this problem came about out of poor city planning and
developers failed attempt at creating the largest business and commercial center in Latin
America. Problems arose as the infrastructure of Sao Paulo could not support its rapid population
growth; carrying serious implications such as traffic congestion, inadequate public
transportation, high crime rate, slum housing, pollution, and poor sanitation (Starobin, 2009).
Unlike migrant workers who had some level of prosperity during the 1950s, people involve in
rural-urban migration face tougher challenges today, with stiffer competition for jobs. Sao Paulo
has a nine percent unemployment rate and underemployment is even higher with 1.5 million
people. This issue of high unemployment rate not only increases prevalence of crimes; it
prevents social mobility, as moving out of the slums and favelas would allow people the basic
necessities like toilet, clean water, and electricity.

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Urbanization Trends 3
References
Henkin, S. (1999, August). Sao Paulo: Urbanization Run Amok. World and I, 14.1. Retrieved
July 1, 2010, from General OneFile via Gale database.
Starobin, P. (2009, May 15). Brazil in the Mind of America: The Favelas. National Journal.
Retrieved July 1, 2010, from General OneFile via Gale database.

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