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Introduction of operation_research

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Research:
Research can be defined as the search for knowledge or any systematic investigation to
establish facts. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is
discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement
of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.
Research methods
The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main
forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy):
Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems
Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem
Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence
Research can also fall into two distinct types:
Primary research
Secondary research
Qualitative research
Quantitative research
Types of marketing research
Marketing research techniques come in many forms, including:
1. Ad Tracking periodic or continuous in-market research to monitor a brand’s performance
using measures such as brand awareness, brand preference, and product usage.
2. Advertising Research used to predict copy testing or track the efficacy of advertisements
for any medium, measured by the ad’s ability to get attention, communicate the message,
build the brand’s image, and motivate the consumer to purchase the product or service.
(Young, 2005)
3. Brand equity research - how favourably do consumers view the brand?
4. Brand association research - what do consumers associate with the brand?
5. Brand attribute research - what are the key traits that describe the brand promise?
6. Brand name testing - what do consumers feel about the names of the products?
7. Commercial eye tracking research - examine advertisements, package designs, websites,
etc by analyzing visual behaviour of the consumer
8. Concept testing - to test the acceptance of a concept by target consumers
9. Cool hunting - to make observations and predictions in changes of new or existing cultural
trends in areas such as fashion, music, films, television, youth culture and lifestyle
10. Buyer decision processes research - to determine what motivates people to buy and
what decision-making process they use

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11. Copy testing predicts in-market performance of an ad before it airs by analyzing
audience levels of attention, brand linkage, motivation, entertainment, and communication,
as well as breaking down the ad’s flow of attention and flow of emotion. (Young, p 213)
12. Customer satisfaction research - quantitative or qualitative studies that yields an
understanding of a customer's of satisfaction with a transaction
13. Demand estimation - to determine the approximate level of demand for the product
14. Distribution channel audits - to assess distributors’ and retailers’ attitudes toward a
product, brand, or company
15. Marketing effectiveness and analytics - Building models and measuring results to
determine the effectiveness of individual marketing activities.
16. Mystery Consumer or Mystery shopping - An employee or representative of the market
research firm anonymously contacts a salesperson and indicates he or she is shopping for a
product. The shopper then records the entire experience. This method is often used for
quality control or for researching competitors' products.
17. Positioning research - how does the target market see the brand relative to competitors?
what does the brand stand for?
18. Price elasticity testing - to determine how sensitive customers are to price changes
19. Sales forecasting - to determine the expected level of sales given the level of demand.
With respect to other factors like Advertising expenditure,sales promotion etc.
20. Segmentation research - to determine the demographic, psychographic, and behavioural
characteristics of potential buyers
21. Online panel - a group of individual who accepted to respond to marketing research
online
22. Store audit - to measure the sales of a product or product line at a statistically selected
store sample in order to determine market share, or to determine whether a retail store
provides adequate service
21. Test marketing - a small-scale product launch used to determine the likely acceptance of
the product when it is introduced into a wider market
22. Viral Marketing Research - refers to marketing research designed to estimate the
probability that specific communications will be transmitted throughout an individuals Social
Network. Estimates ofSocial Networking Potential (SNP) are combined with estimates of
selling effectiveness to estimate ROI on specific combinations of messages and media.
Contribution of Research to various dimensions of Management:
Operations management:
1. identifying those processes in a complex project which affect the overall duration of
the project.

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Research: Research can be defined as the search for knowledge or any systematic investigation to establish facts. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research methods The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence Research can also fall into two distinct types: Primary research Secondary research Qualitative research Quantitative research Types of marketing research Marketing research techniques come in many forms, including: 1. Ad Tracking – periodic or continuous in-market research to monitor a brand’s performance using measures such as brand awareness, brand preference, and product usage. 2. Advertising Research – used to ...
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