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Civt243 ch1

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Chapter 1 Weight-Volume Relationships Braja Das Ed.8 Dr. Rafeh _ Soil Mechanics CIVT243 1 Braja Das Ed.8 Dr. Rafeh _ Soil Mechanics CIVT243 2 Introduction Soil is defined as the uncemented aggregate of mineral grains and decayed organic matter (solid particles) with liquid and gas in the empty spaces between the solid particles. Soil mechanics is the branch of science that deals with the study of the physical properties of soil and the behavior of soil masses subjected to various types of forces. Soils engineering is the application of the principles of soil mechanics to practical problems. Geotechnical engineering is the sub-discipline of civil engineering that involves natural materials found close to the surface of the earth. It includes the application of the principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to the design of foundations, retaining structures, and earth structures. Braja Das Ed.8 Dr. Rafeh _ Soil Mechanics CIVT243 3 Introduction Engineers and scientists began to address the properties and behaviors of soils in a more methodical manner starting in the early part of the 18th century 1. Preclassical (1700 to 1776 A.D.) 2. Classical soil mechanics—Phase I (1776 to 1856 A.D.) 3. Classical soil mechanics—Phase II (1856 to 1910 A.D.) 4. Modern soil mechanics (1910 to 1927 A.D.) In 1717, a French royal engineer, Henri Gautier (1660–1737), studied the natural slopes of soils French scientist Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736–1806) used the principl ...
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