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SCI 245 Week 6 DQ 1




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When normal faults occur, the fault plane inclines steeply because
of the tension exerted when the crust rifts. The result is a number of
fractures including cli like fault scarps. This type of fault occurs in a
series of faults when one block falls between two normal faults
known as a graben. In other types of normal faults narrow blocks
push upward known as horst. Another type of fault is a reverse fault.
In this type of fault one side of the fault plane rides up over the
other. The fault scarp produced appears to be similar to the normal
fault but there are landslides causing the scarp to overhang the
other. Over thrust faults is where horizontal movement where one
slice of rock rides over the adjacent ground surface. The #nal type of
fault is transcurrent faults or strike slip faults. In this type of fault the
movement is horizontal and the resulting scarp is not apparent or
relatively small.
When a fold occurs the $at strata is caught in the collision and fold.
This produces anticlines or synclines. Anticlines are wave like shapes
that form in the strata as unfolds. Synclines are trough like
downfolds. During the folding process the weathering of the rock
can result in the topography to re$ect the folding beneath the
surface. In faulting the brittle rock of the Earth's surface fractures
due to the stresses of the moving plates. This causes displacements
along the fault plane.
In California the San Andreas Fault constant movement of the plates
will cause additional earthquakes. Part the San Andreas Fault line is
relatively straight and scientists are predicting that along the
straight fault lines the ruptures will travel at twice the speed of the
original shear wave traveling through rock. According to Science
Daily, straight sections of the fault line will produce rupture speeds
to be higher than normal and with a earthquake comparable to the
ones in California in 1857 and 1906 the super shear rupture would
send strong shock waves to Los Angeles and the Santa Barbara
areas and could be devastating.

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