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SCI 230 Week 5 CheckPoint - Basic Processes




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SCI 230 Week 5 Day 4
Checkpoint: Basic Processes
How do the following organisms reproduce?
1. Bacteria
2. Grasshopper
3. Fish
4. Bear
Bacteria reproduce asexually by a process known as binary fission in prokaryotic
cells and mitosis in all others. This is where one cell becomes two. In some bacteria
these cells immediately separate into completely independent organisms. Those which
do not separate form colonies of individuals joined by shared sides. Even in these
colonies, each cell is capable of independent existence.
Grasshoppers reproduce by laying eggs. These eggs have little yoke to nourish the
embryos instead they contain several germ cells which most of become support cells
which nourish the primary egg cell. Usually, these eggs are surrounded and protected
by a shell. This shell contains a terminal pore allowing sperm to gain access to the eggs
to fertilize them. The fertilization process takes place inside of the female’s body. The
sperm is either transferred in liquid form or as a sperm Packet picked up by or injected
into the female.
Fish also reproduce by laying eggs. Some marine fish’s eggs are simple and do not
contain any yoke. They are basically a female gamete which is surrounded by a
gelatinous coat which sperm or at least its nucleus, nutrients, water, and wastes can
penetrate. Other fish eggs, like those of freshwater fish, contain a large amount of yoke.
During the reproduction process, the female will lay her eggs in a group and the male
will swim over the group depositing sperm over them. After that, the eggs are left to
hatch on their own.
Bear reproduce sexually as do humans. The female produces an egg and mates with
a male who produces sperm. When an egg becomes fertilized, it develops into an
embryo which further develops into a fetus. The embryo and later fetus are surrounded
by membranes and fluids and are kept inside the female’s body to develop. Some of the
membranes become the placenta. This attaches to the embryo and later to the fetus
and anchors it to the female’s uterus. Blood vessels in the placenta flow alongside the
female’s blood vessels and allow the embryo and later fetus to extract nutrients, oxygen,
and several other substances. Wastes are also removed through the placenta to be
disposed of by the female’s kidneys and lungs.

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