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Effects Associated With Automated Cars


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Running head: AUTONOMOUS CAR 1
Autonomous Car:
Autonomous Car
The biggest cause of road accidents today is human error. It accounts for about 80% of all
road accidents (Badland & Schofield, 2005). Ordinary cars are human controlled machines and,
therefore, are prone to errors. They entirely depend on the commands applied by the driver
regardless of whether they are correct or not. They cannot correct a command applied
inappropriately. This causes road accidents simply because ordinary cars have no capacity to
correct these human errors. The Institute for Highway Safety suggests technology can reduce up
to one third of fatal road accidents (Badland & Schofield, 2005).
Autonomous cars are also known as robotic or driverless cars. Examples of those that
have been developed perform automatic steering. The technology used is centered around

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sensing magnetic monorails embedded on the road. Recent researchers use custom-made
hardware, advanced software, and sensors in assembling autonomous cars.
Autonomous cars have been highly predicted in the field of science. Major firms, such as
Volvo, Audi, and Mercedes have declared their interests in venturing in production of these cars.
Corporations too plan to begin selling these vehicles. This idea has gone as far as making some
governments pass legislation to lay the legal framework to enable this development thrives
legally (Badland & Schofield, 2005).
Cars can be classified according to their increasing level of automation. According to
this criterion, we can classify them into five categories. At the lowest rank are those that depend
entirely on the command of the driver. In this case, the driver completely keeps control of the
vehicle at all times. The second category is the one that has its individual vehicle controls
automated. These include controls like automatic braking and electronic stability. Electronic
stability helps to steer the vehicle where the driver intends to go (Fantz & Katsioloudis, 2011).
Additionally, it ensure to regain control by reducing engine power to levels that can easily be
controlled. The third category is that which can automate in unison at least two controls. This can
be a combination of lane keeping and adaptive cruise control. A car in this category
automatically adjusts its speed and maintains a sufficiently safe distance from the vehicles that
are ahead. Sensor information from on-board sensors imposes control. The process requires
mobile infrastructure like reflectors or transmitters or those that are fixed like roadside beacons
and satellites (Bekey, 2005). The vehicle slows when approaching a vehicle ahead and regains its

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speed when there is a smooth flow of traffic. The fourth category requires the driver even less.
The car, in certain conditions, does all safety critical functions. It senses when conditions
demand a driver to take control, and allows sufficient transition time for such change of control.
The fifth category is full self-driving, and can perform required driving functions as well as
monitoring roadway conditions in an entire road trip (Bensalem, Gallien, Ingrand, Kahloul
&Nguyen, 2009).
So much speculation surrounds the expected impacts of the autonomous cars. One of
them is that consumers will in the near future afford vehicles that do not require a driver. They
will accrue many benefits out of the new development. This includes a reduction of costs that
come because of accidents, reduced parking and traffic costs and reduce pollution emissions.
Savings out of this technology will be attractive (Badland & Schofield, 2005).
Effects Associated With Automated Cars
An automated car is a great investment and this undertaking is projected to be associated
with the following costs:
Autonomous cars intensively use computer software and pose a security concern.
Computer software are vulnerable to hacking. Features, such as data sharing are likely to
raise concerns of privacy.

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