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1 Alkaline Phosphatase

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A study of the effects of vanadate inhibition on alkaline
phosphatase enzyme kinetics.
Name
Bio366L- Section_ Group_
Date:
T.A:

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Introduction
Alkaline phosphatases are a group of dimeric metalloenzymes whose main function is to catalyze
the hydrolysis of phosphate esters on the, producing inorganic phosphates and alcohol in the
process (Ziegler, Florian, Ballicora, & Herlinger, 2009). This enzyme employs the roles of zinc
and magnesium as key cofactors in its function. It has been presumed in numerous studies that the
active sites in both calf intestine alkaline phosphatase and that of other species is similar. Calf
intestine alkaline phosphatase is the most widely studies of all mammalian phosphatases. Alkaline
phosphatase can be found in different tissues in the body where the various isoenzymes have been
isolated. It can be found in the liver cytosolically and in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane, in
the placenta, kidneys, bone and in the ileal mucosa (Coleman, 1992). The enzymes are located
extracellularly on the outer membrane of their respective cells.
All tissues in the human body express the enzyme, however some have it in lower concentrations
that others. In the liver, kidney, placenta and the intestinal mucosa. In mammalian physiology,
there are four major isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase that can be found; Intestinal alkaline
phosphatase, Liver alkaline phosphatase, Placental alkaline phosphates and germ cell alkaline
phosphatase. All of the mentioned isozymes are encoded by four genes (Millan, 2006). Alkaline
phosphatases can be grouped in either tissue specific, which includes, placental, germ and
intestinal alkaline phosphatase, and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase which forma majority
of that in circulation.
This enzyme has important clinical uses that correlate with the levels that are present in the blood,
whether elevated or decreased levels brought about by various illnesses and conditions. In elevated
scenarios, the potential diagnosis may be pregnancy (Lange, et al., 1982), lymphoma, liver

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A study of the effects of vanadate inhibition on alkaline phosphatase enzyme kinetics. Name Bio366L- Section_ Group_ Date: T.A: Introduction Alkaline phosphatases are a group of dimeric metalloenzymes whose main function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate esters on the, producing inorganic phosphates and alcohol in the process (Ziegler, Florian, Ballicora, & Herlinger, 2009). This enzyme employs the roles of zinc and magnesium as key cofactors in its function. It has been presumed in numerous studies that the active sites in both calf intestine alkaline phosphatase and that of other species is similar. Calf intestine alkaline phosphatase is the most widely studies of all mammalian phosphatases. Alkaline phosphatase can be found in different tissues in the body where the various isoenzymes have been isolated. It can be found in the liver cytosolically and in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane, in the placenta, kidneys, bone and in the ileal mucosa (Coleman, 1992). The enzymes are located extracellularly on the outer membrane of their respective cells. All tissues in the human body express the enzyme, however some have it in lower concentrations that others. In the liver, kidney, placenta and the intestinal mucosa. In mammalian physiology, there are four major isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase that can be found; Intestinal alkaline phosphatase, Liver alkaline phosphatase, Placental alkaline phosphates and germ cell alkaline phosphatase. All of the mentioned isozyme ...
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