Showing Page:
1/7
PASSAGE 1
Read the passage. Then read each question and choose the correct answer.
Crowdfunding for the Arts
A Do you like unusual productions by small theatre groups? Are you a fan of a particular singer
or group? Do you like the work of a little-known artist who you think has great potential? If the answer
to any of these is "yes" then you might have some experience with crowdfunding for the arts.
Crowdfunding is where people raise small amounts of money from large numbers of people on the
Internet. Although individual contributions are small, the total can add up to a sizable amount to fund
an artistic project. Sometimes the project is a start-up, something to launch a new career. By contrast,
it can also be a venture to bring an established group to new audiences. Either way, crowdfunding is
the modern way to raise money.
B For hundreds of years, talented people in the arts have needed support from other people in
order to perform or create. In Europe, artists like Michelangelo and musicians such as Mozart had
wealthy patrons from royal families who supported their work. Typically, the patron would commission
or order a particular work such as a painting or piece of music for an occasion. The artist would get
paid when the work was finished. Such financial backers are known as angels, but the concept is the
same: providing money to support an artistic project.
C Crowdfunding is different because the money comes from many people, not just one wealthy
person. The first major example of crowdfunding for the arts was in 1996 when the British rock band
Marillion used its website to raise $60,000 for a North American tour. The band's fans contributed the
money, so this technique became known as fan-funding. More recently, artists have used an agency to
organize the contributions instead of doing it through their own website. For example, in April 2012,
musician Amanda Palmer used the organization Kickstarter to raise money for her new album. She
hoped to raise $100,000, but by May 2012 she had collected $1.2 million from 25,000 participants.
D Harvard Business School professor Ramana Nanda has researched crowdfunding for the arts
and found some interesting trends. Since Kickstarter got established in 2009, it has raised more money
for the arts than the arts agency for the U.S. government. Moreover, some of the artistic projects that
have been crowdfunded are quite different from those supported by government grants. Part of this
difference is that small groups or beginning artists are not likely to go through the process of applying
for grants, but can easily seek money from online supporters. The public votes with their contributions
to support small or unusual projects, many of which ordinarily would not get grants. Professor Nanda
thinks that crowdfunding creates a more democratic way to get money for the arts.
Showing Page:
2/7
1. What is the main idea of the passage?
A. Some young musicians have potential to be stars, but need money.
B. Artists and musicians find it difficult to apply for government grants.
C. People can use the Internet to financially support their favorite artists.
2. What is the best description for crowdfunding?
A. Many people giving small amounts of money
B. A wealthy person making one big contribution
C. Arts organizations giving money to artists
3. What is an angel as described in the reading?
A. A member of a popular British band
B. A person who gives money to artists
C. An organization that supports the arts
4. Which of these would most likely be a patron, as seen in Paragraph B?
A. A prince who wanted his picture painted
B. A popular singer in a Mozart production
C. A musician who needs money for projects
5. Why is the band Marillion mentioned in Paragraph C?
A. Since they were the first band with a website
B. Because they toured North America in 1996
C. As an early example of successful crowdfunding
6. How do you think Amanda Palmer felt in May 2012?
A. Upset she couldn't record her new album
B. Worried that she didn't have many fans
C. Amazed that she raised so much money
7. Which statement would Professor Nanda probably agree with?
A. People must learn how to write better grants to get money.
B. Crowdfunding allows more people to participate in the arts.
C. Only arts organizations should receive government money.
Showing Page:
3/7
PASSAGE 2
Read the passage. Then read each question and choose the correct answer.
Where Have All the Fish Gone?
A Throughout history, people have thought of the ocean as a diverse and limitless source of food.
Today, however, there are clear signs that the oceans do have a limit. Most of the big fish in our oceans
- including many of the fish we love to eat - are now gone. One major factor is overfishing. People are
taking so many fish from the sea that species cannot reproduce quickly enough to maintain their
populations. How did this problem start? And what is the future for fish?
SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM
B For centuries, local fishermen caught only enough fish to feed their families and their
communities. They used traditional gear like spears and hooks that targeted a single fish at a time.
However, in the mid-20th century, more people around the world became interested in fish as a source
of protein and healthy fats. In response to this, governments gave money and other help to the fishing
industry.
C As a result, the fishing industry grew. Large commercial fishing companies began catching
huge quantities of fish. They made a lot of money selling the fish around the world. In addition, they
started using new fishing technologies that made fishing easier. These technologies included sonar to
locate fish, and dragging large nets along the ocean floor. Modern equipment enabled commercial
fishermen to catch many more fish than local fishermen.
RISE OF THE LITTLE FISH
D In 2010, the Census of Marine Life estimated that 90 percent of the big ocean fish populations
are gone, mainly due to overfishing. In particular, commercial fishing has greatly reduced the number
of large fish such as cod, tuna, and salmon. Today, there are plenty of fish in the sea, but they're mostly
just the little ones. Small fish, such as sardines and anchovies, have more than doubled in number. This
is largely because there aren't enough big fish to eat them.
E This is a problem because, in order to be stable, oceans need predators. Predators are necessary
to kill the sick and weak fish. Without them, there are too many unhealthy, small fish in the sea. This
can cause serious problems for the sea's food chain and the health of our oceans.
Showing Page:
4/7
A FUTURE FOR FISH?
F A study published in 2006 in the journal Science made a prediction: If we continue to overfish
the oceans, most of the fish that we catch now - from tuna to sardines - will disappear by 2050. However,
we can prevent this situation if we restore the ocean's biodiversity.
G Scientists say there are a few ways we can do this. First, commercial fishing companies need
to catch fewer large fish. This will increase the number of predator fish in the sea. Another way to
improve the biodiversity of the oceans is to develop aquaculture - fish farming. Growing fish on farms
means that we catch fewer wild fish. This gives wild fish a chance to survive and reproduce. In addition,
we can make good choices about what we eat. For example, we can stop eating the fish that are most in
danger - like bluefin tuna - or only eat fish from fish farms. If we are careful today, we can still look
forward to a future with fish.
8. What is the purpose of this passage?
A. To report on a scientific study of the oceans
B. To encourage people to buy and eat larger fish
C. To describe a problem and suggest solutions
9. In the section titled "Source of the Problem," which of these happened first?
A. Local fishermen used traditional equipment to catch small numbers of fish.
B. Governments gave money to the fishing industry to buy modern technology.
C. Commercial fishermen began to catch fish with sonar and large drag nets.
10. According to the reading, why did people start to eat more fish?
A. People realized that fish were healthy to eat.
B. More sardines and anchovies became available.
C. The price of fish decreased as fishing increased.
11. Which is the best description of overfishing?
A. Commercial fishermen catch more fish than they can sell.
B. When too many fish are caught, populations cannot recover.
C. There aren't enough small fish left to feed the larger fish.
Showing Page:
5/7
12. Which of the following is considered a large fish?
A. Anchovy
B.Sardine
C. Cod
13. Which of these sections contains a prediction?
A. Source of the Problem
B. Rise of the Little Fish
C. A Future for Fish?
14. Which statement would the author most likely agree with?
A. If people stop eating fish, the oceans will recover.
B. People should eat fish that are farmed and not caught.
C. Large fish have healthier fats and more protein.
PASSAGE 3
Read the passage. Then read each question and choose the correct answer.
The Art of Memory
A We all try to remember certain things in our daily lives: telephone numbers, email addresses,
facts that we learn in class, and important tasks. We use memory techniques like repetition - the idea
that the more we repeat a piece of information, the better we can recall it. But did you know that memory
training goes all the way back to the days of ancient Greece?
B People began to value memory as a skill about 2,500 years ago. That's when the Greek poet
Simonides of Ceos came up with a powerful technique known as the loci method. Simonides realized
that it's easier to remember places and locations than it is to remember lists of names. According to the
loci method, if you think of a very familiar place and visualize certain things in that place, then you can
keep those things in your memory for a long time.
C Simonides called this imagined place a "memory palace." Your memory palace can be any
place that you know well, such as your home or your school. Here's how to use the loci method to
remember a list of tasks: Let's say your memory palace is based on your house. Visualize yourself
walking through it. Imagine yourself doing each task in a different room. Later, when you want to recall
your list of tasks, visualize yourself walking through your house again. You will remember your list of
tasks as you see yourself doing each one.
D In the 15th century, an Italian man named Peter of Ravenna used the loci method to memorize
books and poems. He memorized religious texts, 200 speeches, all of the laws of that time, and 1,000
poems. By using the loci method, he was able to "read" books stored in his memory palaces. "When I
travel, I can truly say I carry everything I own with me," he wrote.
Showing Page:
6/7
E When Simonides and Peter of Ravenna were alive, most people did not have books or pens to
write notes with. They had to remember what they learned. In her book titled The Book of Memory,
Mary Carruthers writes about these memory techniques of the past. She explains that ancient people
considered memory to be a great virtue. A person with a good memory was special because they could
help preserve the society's cultural heritage.
F After Simonides developed the loci method, other people continued to study the art of memory.
Memorization gained a complex set of rules and instructions. Students of memory learned what to
remember and techniques for how to remember it. In fact, memory training is still an important activity
in many parts of the world today. In some cultures, memorizing religious texts is considered a great
achievement. Other cultures value people who can tell myths and folktales from the past, as there is
often no written record of these things.
G Over the past millennium, though, many things have changed. We've gradually replaced our
internal memory with external memory. We've invented devices so we don't have to store information
in our brains. We now have photographs to record our experiences, calendars to keep track of our
schedules, and the Internet and computers to store our ideas. As a result, we've gone from remembering
many things to remembering very little. Nowadays, when we want to know something, we just look it
up. But how does this affect us and our society? Did we lose an important skill?
15. What is the main purpose of the passage?
A. To describe the life and work of Simonides of Ceos and Peter of Ravenna
B. To discuss the history of memory techniques and connect them to the present
C. To explain the best memory training techniques for memorizing long texts
16. What is the basis for the loci method?
A. Making connections between a familiar place and the things we wish to remember
B. Using repetition to remember a list of tasks or facts you have learned
C. Memorizing long books and poems to exercise and strengthen memory
17. What is an example of a "memory palace"?
A. A memory of visiting a famous palace
B. A plan of the physical layout of a palace
C. A mental picture of a place you know well
18. According to the passage, what might be a reason that Peter of Ravenna memorized texts?
A. He had the desire to pass on stories during his travels.
B. He wanted to show that his memorization method worked.
C. He may not have had notebooks or writing equipment.
19. Which of these is NOT given as an example of memorization in Paragraph F?
A. Religious texts
B. Speeches and poems
C. Myths and folktales
20. Which of the following is an example of external memory?
A. Searching for a poet's birthplace on Wikipedia
Showing Page:
7/7
B. Visualizing a mental image of your grandmother
C. Saying a poem you memorized in grade school
21. Which of these statements would the author most likely agree with?
A. With computers and personal assistants, memory has become useless.
B. Unfortunately, memorization is not as important today as in the past.
C. Ancient people forgot their heritage because they didn't write it down.
END OF READING TEST

Unformatted Attachment Preview

PASSAGE 1 Read the passage. Then read each question and choose the correct answer. Crowdfunding for the Arts A Do you like unusual productions by small theatre groups? Are you a fan of a particular singer or group? Do you like the work of a little-known artist who you think has great potential? If the answer to any of these is "yes" then you might have some experience with crowdfunding for the arts. Crowdfunding is where people raise small amounts of money from large numbers of people on the Internet. Although individual contributions are small, the total can add up to a sizable amount to fund an artistic project. Sometimes the project is a start-up, something to launch a new career. By contrast, it can also be a venture to bring an established group to new audiences. Either way, crowdfunding is the modern way to raise money. B For hundreds of years, talented people in the arts have needed support from other people in order to perform or create. In Europe, artists like Michelangelo and musicians such as Mozart had wealthy patrons from royal families who supported their work. Typically, the patron would commission or order a particular work such as a painting or piece of music for an occasion. The artist would get paid when the work was finished. Such financial backers are known as angels, but the concept is the same: providing money to support an artistic project. C Crowdfunding is different because the money comes from many people, not just one wealthy person. The first major example of crowdfunding for the arts was in 1996 when the British rock band Marillion used its website to raise $60,000 for a North American tour. The band's fans contributed the money, so this technique became known as fan-funding. More recently, artists have used an agency to organize the contributions instead of doing it through their own website. For example, in April 2012, musician Amanda Palmer used the organization Kickstarter to raise money for her new album. She hoped to raise $100,000, but by May 2012 she had collected $1.2 million from 25,000 participants. D Harvard Business School professor Ramana Nanda has researched crowdfunding for the arts and found some interesting trends. Since Kickstarter got established in 2009, it has raised more money for the arts than the arts agency for the U.S. government. Moreover, some of the artistic projects that have been crowdfunded are quite different from those supported by government grants. Part of this difference is that small groups or beginning artists are not likely to go through the process of applying for grants, but can easily seek money from online supporters. The public votes with their contributions to support small or unusual projects, many of which ordinarily would not get grants. Professor Nanda thinks that crowdfunding creates a more democratic way to get money for the arts. 1. What is the main idea of the passage? A. Some young musicians have potential to be stars, but need money. B. Artists and musicians find it difficult to apply for government grants. C. People can use the Internet to financially support their favorite artists. 2. What is the best description for crowdfunding? A. Many people giving small amounts of money B. A wealthy person making one big contribution C. Arts organizations giving money to artists 3. What is an angel as described in the reading? A. A member of a popular British band B. A person who gives money to artists C. An organization that supports the arts 4. Which of these would most likely be a patron, as seen in Paragraph B? A. A prince who wanted his picture painted B. A popular singer in a Mozart production C. A musician who needs money for projects 5. Why is the band Marillion mentioned in Paragraph C? A. Since they were the first band with a website B. Because they toured North America in 1996 C. As an early example of successful crowdfunding 6. How do you think Amanda Palmer felt in May 2012? A. Upset she couldn't record her new album B. Worried that she didn't have many fans C. Amazed that she raised so much money 7. Which statement would Professor Nanda probably agree with? A. People must learn how to write better grants to get money. B. Crowdfunding allows more people to participate in the arts. C. Only arts organizations should receive government money. PASSAGE 2 Read the passage. Then read each question and choose the correct answer. Where Have All the Fish Gone? A Throughout history, people have thought of the ocean as a diverse and limitless source of food. Today, however, there are clear signs that the oceans do have a limit. Most of the big fish in our oceans - including many of the fish we love to eat - are now gone. One major factor is overfishing. People are taking so many fish from the sea that species cannot reproduce quickly enough to maintain their populations. How did this problem start? And what is the future for fish? SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM B For centuries, local fishermen caught only enough fish to feed their families and their communities. They used traditional gear like spears and hooks that targeted a single fish at a time. However, in the mid-20th century, more people around the world became interested in fish as a source of protein and healthy fats. In response to this, governments gave money and other help to the fishing industry. C As a result, the fishing industry grew. Large commercial fishing companies began catching huge quantities of fish. They made a lot of money selling the fish around the world. In addition, they started using new fishing technologies that made fishing easier. These technologies included sonar to locate fish, and dragging large nets along the ocean floor. Modern equipment enabled commercial fishermen to catch many more fish than local fishermen. RISE OF THE LITTLE FISH D In 2010, the Census of Marine Life estimated that 90 percent of the big ocean fish populations are gone, mainly due to overfishing. In particular, commercial fishing has greatly reduced the number of large fish such as cod, tuna, and salmon. Today, there are plenty of fish in the sea, but they're mostly just the little ones. Small fish, such as sardines and anchovies, have more than doubled in number. This is largely because there aren't enough big fish to eat them. E This is a problem because, in order to be stable, oceans need predators. Predators are necessary to kill the sick and weak fish. Without them, there are too many unhealthy, small fish in the sea. This can cause serious problems for the sea's food chain and the health of our oceans. A FUTURE FOR FISH? F A study published in 2006 in the journal Science made a prediction: If we continue to overfish the oceans, most of the fish that we catch now - from tuna to sardines - will disappear by 2050. However, we can prevent this situation if we restore the ocean's biodiversity. G Scientists say there are a few ways we can do this. First, commercial fishing companies need to catch fewer large fish. This will increase the number of predator fish in the sea. Another way to improve the biodiversity of the oceans is to develop aquaculture - fish farming. Growing fish on farms means that we catch fewer wild fish. This gives wild fish a chance to survive and reproduce. In addition, we can make good choices about what we eat. For example, we can stop eating the fish that are most in danger - like bluefin tuna - or only eat fish from fish farms. If we are careful today, we can still look forward to a future with fish. 8. What is the purpose of this passage? A. To report on a scientific study of the oceans B. To encourage people to buy and eat larger fish C. To describe a problem and suggest solutions 9. In the section titled "Source of the Problem," which of these happened first? A. Local fishermen used traditional equipment to catch small numbers of fish. B. Governments gave money to the fishing industry to buy modern technology. C. Commercial fishermen began to catch fish with sonar and large drag nets. 10. According to the reading, why did people start to eat more fish? A. People realized that fish were healthy to eat. B. More sardines and anchovies became available. C. The price of fish decreased as fishing increased. 11. Which is the best description of overfishing? A. Commercial fishermen catch more fish than they can sell. B. When too many fish are caught, populations cannot recover. C. There aren't enough small fish left to feed the larger fish. 12. Which of the following is considered a large fish? A. Anchovy B.Sardine C. Cod 13. Which of these sections contains a prediction? A. Source of the Problem B. Rise of the Little Fish C. A Future for Fish? 14. Which statement would the author most likely agree with? A. If people stop eating fish, the oceans will recover. B. People should eat fish that are farmed and not caught. C. Large fish have healthier fats and more protein. PASSAGE 3 Read the passage. Then read each question and choose the correct answer. The Art of Memory A We all try to remember certain things in our daily lives: telephone numbers, email addresses, facts that we learn in class, and important tasks. We use memory techniques like repetition - the idea that the more we repeat a piece of information, the better we can recall it. But did you know that memory training goes all the way back to the days of ancient Greece? B People began to value memory as a skill about 2,500 years ago. That's when the Greek poet Simonides of Ceos came up with a powerful technique known as the loci method. Simonides realized that it's easier to remember places and locations than it is to remember lists of names. According to the loci method, if you think of a very familiar place and visualize certain things in that place, then you can keep those things in your memory for a long time. C Simonides called this imagined place a "memory palace." Your memory palace can be any place that you know well, such as your home or your school. Here's how to use the loci method to remember a list of tasks: Let's say your memory palace is based on your house. Visualize yourself walking through it. Imagine yourself doing each task in a different room. Later, when you want to recall your list of tasks, visualize yourself walking through your house again. You will remember your list of tasks as you see yourself doing each one. D In the 15th century, an Italian man named Peter of Ravenna used the loci method to memorize books and poems. He memorized religious texts, 200 speeches, all of the laws of that time, and 1,000 poems. By using the loci method, he was able to "read" books stored in his memory palaces. "When I travel, I can truly say I carry everything I own with me," he wrote. E When Simonides and Peter of Ravenna were alive, most people did not have books or pens to write notes with. They had to remember what they learned. In her book titled The Book of Memory, Mary Carruthers writes about these memory techniques of the past. She explains that ancient people considered memory to be a great virtue. A person with a good memory was special because they could help preserve the society's cultural heritage. F After Simonides developed the loci method, other people continued to study the art of memory. Memorization gained a complex set of rules and instructions. Students of memory learned what to remember and techniques for how to remember it. In fact, memory training is still an important activity in many parts of the world today. In some cultures, memorizing religious texts is considered a great achievement. Other cultures value people who can tell myths and folktales from the past, as there is often no written record of these things. G Over the past millennium, though, many things have changed. We've gradually replaced our internal memory with external memory. We've invented devices so we don't have to store information in our brains. We now have photographs to record our experiences, calendars to keep track of our schedules, and the Internet and computers to store our ideas. As a result, we've gone from remembering many things to remembering very little. Nowadays, when we want to know something, we just look it up. But how does this affect us and our society? Did we lose an important skill? 15. What is the main purpose of the passage? A. To describe the life and work of Simonides of Ceos and Peter of Ravenna B. To discuss the history of memory techniques and connect them to the present C. To explain the best memory training techniques for memorizing long texts 16. What is the basis for the loci method? A. Making connections between a familiar place and the things we wish to remember B. Using repetition to remember a list of tasks or facts you have learned C. Memorizing long books and poems to exercise and strengthen memory 17. What is an example of a "memory palace"? A. A memory of visiting a famous palace B. A plan of the physical layout of a palace C. A mental picture of a place you know well 18. According to the passage, what might be a reason that Peter of Ravenna memorized texts? A. He had the desire to pass on stories during his travels. B. He wanted to show that his memorization method worked. C. He may not have had notebooks or writing equipment. 19. Which of these is NOT given as an example of memorization in Paragraph F? A. Religious texts B. Speeches and poems C. Myths and folktales 20. Which of the following is an example of external memory? A. Searching for a poet's birthplace on Wikipedia B. Visualizing a mental image of your grandmother C. Saying a poem you memorized in grade school 21. Which of these statements would the author most likely agree with? A. With computers and personal assistants, memory has become useless. B. Unfortunately, memorization is not as important today as in the past. C. Ancient people forgot their heritage because they didn't write it down. END OF READING TEST Name: Description: ...
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.
Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4