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Code
6500
Program.M.A.(T.edu)
Assignment no.1
Question no.1) Explain the importance of “education”.
Differentiate between the aims of education in a Muslim
society and in the global perspective?
Answer: Meaning of education:
1.Etymological Explanation of Education:
The word education is derived from the Latin word educare which
means to bring up’. There is yet another Latin word “educere, which
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means to bring forth. Education, therefore, means both to bring forth
as well as to bring up.
Accordingly education does not merely mean the acquisition of
knowledge or experience but it also means the development of habits
attitudes and skills which help a man to lead a full and worthwhile life.
2.Education is an Attempt to Develop the Man
“Education is an attempt on the part of the adult members of the
human society to shape the development of the coming generations in
accordance with its own ideals of life.” It is an effort to secure for every
one the conditions under which individuality is to the maximum
developed.
It was Plato who said that education, “develops in the body and in the
soul (of the pupil) all the beauty and all the perfection of which he is
capable of”.
3- Education means the Modification of Behaviour
Education is an activity or a process, which transforms the behaviour of
a person from instinctive behaviour’ to ‘human behaviour’. Man,
instead of acting impuisively,acts rationally.
According to Ruskin : “You do not educate a man by telling him what he
knows not, but by making him what he was not”.
Elaborating this point we can say, “Education made the mind; if the
mind is the man, it is education which makes the man, a good man or a
bad man according to its (education’s) content, its nature and its
methods”.
4.-Education is an Act of Training:
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Education is a conscious purpose to train the children for fulfilling the
responsibilities of adult life. Animals are also trained by imitating the
actions of the adults but in their training the purpose is neither
conscious nor well designed.
Since the children have to enter a complicated society when they grow
adults, education gives them training for adult life. It develops in them
thinking and reasoning power in order to enable them to rise to the
occasion, when they are faced with the pressing problems of home,
community and world. An individual
Needs training to use his own reason so that thereby he may learn to
live an orderly life or a moral life. Education is the training of the eye
and the mind so that the individual should make correct responses to
the problems and the oportunities of life. Responses are of two kinds,
physical responses and mental responses. If a child bows automatically
while he is in the company of others, he may be called a trained child
and his response is a physical response.
If the child bows out of respect, then he may be called an educated
child and this is his mental response.
Importance of education:
Following points further highlight the importance of education:
1.Global impact of education:
Education can leave the long-lasting impact on global
development. An educated person always works for the
benefits of humanity.
We all acknowledge the importance of education, knowledge,
and truth for promoting the world outlook. Education produces
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citizens who are men of intellectual and moral integrity,
tolerant and wise. It aims at producing ideal human beings.
2.Education promotes the national interest:
Education also helps in promoting the national interest of a
country. The highly educated society has a critical intelligence
of an exceptional order. They can form independent
conclusions from given facts. The educated persons have the
wisdom and knowledge to work for the betterment of the
country. They are from all walks of like work together in
protecting the national interest.
3.Level of moral and ethical values:
Education promotes equality of prospect. Any privilege, when
primarily based on advantage alone, is certain to be greater
ethical because it has to justify no unmerited privilege, propose
no ethical system which promotes magnificence-feeling or
social snobbery and protects nothing, which is unjust or
ethically wrong. The aim of education, whatever the social
machine, have to be no longer effective to disseminate
expertise, however additionally to stimulate the thinking spirit.
4.Increase in literacy rate:
Literacy rate of a country also depends upon on education.
Literacy refers to the ability of a person to read and write.
Literacy is important not only for children but also for adults.
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Higher the literacy rate, higher will be the growth of the
country.
5.Education enhances creativity:
Education or educational activities also boost the creativity of
students. Education provides the opportunity for students to
apply their skills in creative ways and become more
professional. The creativity of students provides them with
opportunities to achieve their goals.
6.Education produces good citizens:
Education produced the civilized and well-organized persons.
The educated persons incorporate good ideas and ultimately go
for betterment in life. It helps one in getting out of one's
comfort zone as that is where the magic lies.
7.Awareness of rights and responsibilities:
The educated person is well aware of his rights and
responsibilities. An educated citizen is aware of consumer right,
right to vote or right against exploitation by the employer.
Moreover, he/she can raise voice against some wrong
happening around his/her. Education not only keeps well
informed about rights but also responsibilities of a person. It
will make the person more responsible, who is able to work for
the wellness of others.
8.Curiosity for learning new things:
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An educated person has the curiosity for learning new things in
life, ultimately it becomes the passion to know and understand
things in a scientific way, having objectivity.
9.Balance in life:
Educated persons enjoy a good life as education enable them to
live a characterful, happy, well-organized and balanced life.
Education not only makes us able to learn about history,
science, math, geography, and other subjects however it makes
us smart enough to learn how to live life and handle bad
situations.
10.Helpful in future research:
Education has importance in research work. Research work
being done in a different field of life is only due to the high level
of education. In every field of life, there is specialized education
and research work is done in universities.
Difference between aims of education in Muslim society and
global perspective;
Aims of Education in a Muslim Society
‘‘It is the culture" says T.Brameld. ‘‘in which education
germinates and flowers". The sole aim of education in the
cultural perspective of Islam, is to prepare man for worship,
that is, for fulfilling his obligations to God, community and his
own self, in the best possible way. This is how we can develop
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in him God-consciousness. Education aims at the growth of
both the individual and the society , the growth of God
consciousness determining the direction in which either of
them is to grow.
(a) Growth of the Individual
All education aims at the growth of the individual, but the
principle of growth differs from culture to culture. This principle
in the culture of Islam is the principle of (tawhid) the oneness of
God. It develops the trait of God-consciousness (taqwa) in the
totality of man's being in such a way that his conduct becomes
a model of compassion (rahm) and forgiveness (afv). This is the
height of the development of the individual in vertical
dimension. Prayer, fasting alms-giving and pilgrimage to the
Holy Kabah are all means to achieving this all-important ideal.
Besides developing the traits of compassion and forgiveness,
the growth of God-consciousness generates a sense of self
respect in the individual, setting him free from the bondage of
everything save that of God.
(b) Growth of the Society
Education is a social institution. It provides for the growth of
the individual as well as for the growth and stability of society.
Just as Tawhid is the principle of the growth of the unity of the
individual, so Risalat is the principle of the growth and stability
of the society. The essence of Tawhid is unity, solidarity and
freedom. The essence of Risalat, as working principle, is respect
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for humanity. It abhors the distinctions of caste, color, creed,
clan, race, blood and language and ensures, as against these,
the growth of society in the direction of universal brotherhood,
religious tolerance and economic and social justice. The law of
Islam strikes a balance between the growth of the individual
and that of the society.
Aims of education in global perspective
Different educational thinkers at various times in various
countries have cast a glances at aims of education. No two
persons have expressed the aims of education in precisely
identical way. For example, according to Plato the aim of
education should be to allow the individual to develop along
the line of his own greatest powers". The Spartans could not
afford to be weak. Their aim of education, therefore, was the
preparation for a life of military duties. In their educational
system they emphasized physical prowess, courage, discipline
and obedience. Athenian education was in marked contrast as
against Spartan education. While Spartans cared more for body
than for mind, the Athenians wanted harmonious development
of body and mind.
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.
1.- Education for Individual Development
“Individuality is the ideal of life”. Exalting the individual
development’ as the aim of education, Sir Percy Nunn believes that
“nothing good enters into the human world except in and through the
free activities of individual men and women, and that educational
practice must be shaped to accord with that truth. His belief in this aim
is based on the fact that individual is the architect of his own fate. He is
responsible for his own destiny. Education, therefore, must cater for
the complete development of an individual.
When we say that education is an individual process, we seek to bring
about the growth and the development of an individual, from within his
physical, mental, emotional and spiritual abilities. “Individuality is an
affair of the whole organism, or “body mind’. It involves the whole
being”. It is the synthesis of body mind and soul. All round development
of a man makes him a very well adjusted person in the world.
2.Education for knowledge:
‘‘Knowledge is power by which things are done’’,said Socrates. That is
the reason that some educators very strongly advocate that the aim of
education should be the acquisition of knowledge. They believe that
‘‘every advance in knowledge has a practical bearing on life , either on
the material or on the mental side’’. ‘‘It is knowledge that has enabled
humanity to make progress. Human greatness is measured by power of
thought. True knowledge consist of processing ‘‘ideas of universal
validity’’. They should be functional and valuable .
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3.Education for Social Efficiency:
, In view of Rousseau’s verdict that society corrupts the man, there
might appear “certain antagonism between the claims of the
individuals and those of society”, but in fact there should be no conflict
between the two. Man is a social animal.
Without society, he is either a beast or an angel. Since he is neither of
the two but a rational social being, the aim of education should be
social efficiency. Howsoever developed the individual may be his
success in life depends upon social efficiency.
Social efficiency implies social awareness, economic productivity and
cultural and moral refinement. Social awareness will produce in the
mind of the child, a sense of fairness in dealing with others, open
mindedness and the ability to follow and lead as the situation warrants.
Social efficiency envisages two concepts: (1) the narrow concept or the
Extreme form and (2) the broad concept or the desirable form.
The extreme form of social aim conceives society as something above
the individual, superior to him and expecting him to subordinate his
wishes and aspirations to the will of the society. The good of the society
becomes the aim of education. In the words of
Ross, such a society has “absolute control over the lives and destinies of
its
Individual members. It sees education as the most powerful means of
achieving this end, and therefore, devises and enforces a rigid system
of state education.
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4.Education for culture
Culture is a broad and very inclusive term. It is something organic ,
which is lived into. It comprises vast array of inter-related knowledge ,
skills , values ,and goals. A cultured person is expected to (1) appreciate
ideas and art, (2) have broad human interests (3) have social efficiency
and socially acceptable behavior , and (4) understand the best thoughts
of the community. One essential and binding feature of human
relationship is to be a man of culture. If education produces such a
man, it has done its job nicely. A man of culture is an invaluable asset to
society. Culture is the true behaviour of thought. It helps man in being
reluctant to do or to say anything which may offend the feelings of
others.
5.Complete living
For complete living it is necessary to have, knowledge
about life, interest in life and ideals in life. These will enable men to fill
their unique and particular function in life. Human happiness will result,
from perfecting our nature, from moral virtues like courage, purity and
righteousness and from conscience.
Question no.2) How can you apply different philosophies to the
discipline of education? Analyze different schools of thought of
educational philosophy.
Answer: The relationship between Philosophy and Education is very
close. Philosophy tells the goal and essentials of good life. Education
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tells the means to achieve those goals and learn those essentials of
good life Philosophy sets for us "Whither we are bound and whither we
ought to be bound."
It can, therefore, be said that Philosophy is the theory while Education
is the practice. Philosophy is the contemplative side while Education is
the active side." Education is applied philosophy. Philosophy deals with
the ends, Education with the means and technique of achieving those
ends. While philosophy lays down the ends, it also wishes that the
means must constantly look to the ends so that they may not be
leading astray. Philosophy deals with the abstract, education deals with
the concrete. Both of the go together. They started together
Philosophy-Explicit or implicit-is always in the background for shaping
things in Education. It answers thousands of questions pertaining to the
whole field of Education. If the child is to be educated, why is he to be
educated, for what is he to be educated, how is he to be educated, by
whom has he to be educated? Are questions which are answered by
philosophy. There is, in fact, an intimate relationship between
Philosophy and discipline of education:
i) Philosophy points out the way, to be followed by Education
Education means modification of the child's native behaviour. But the
problem is in which direction modification should be carried out and
what should be the standards and values to strive for. This problem is
solved by philosophy which points to the way to be followed by the
educator in the modification of the child's behaviour. Philosophy, thus,
deals with the ends and education with the means to achieve those
ends. In other words, education is a laboratory in which philosophic
theories and speculations are tested and made concrete. Education
may, therefore, be rightly called applied philosophy. Philosophy is
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wisdom while education transmits that wisdom from one generation to
the other. Philosophy is in reality the theory of education. In other
words, education is the dynamic side of philosophy or application of the
fundamental principles of Philosophy. Philosophy formulates the
method, Education constitutes its process. Philosophy gives ideals,
values and principles. Education works out those ideals, values and
principles.
ii) Education is the Best Means for the Propagation of Philosophy
A philosopher is a constant seeker after truth. He contemplates on the
real nature of the universe, the real nature of man and man's destiny. It
is only after a good deal of contemplation and deliberation that he
arrives at the truth and lays down certain aims, ideals and values. He
then tries to live in accordance with those aims and values and also
wants others to be converted to his beliefs and live according to them.
This he can achieve through education which is the best means for the
propagation of his philosophy.
iii) All Great Philosophers of the World have also Great Educators
The intimate relationship between philosophy and Education is
established in yet another way. The great philosophers of all times
from Plato up to the present day , have also been educators. They
reflected their educational schemes. Most of the educational
movements of the world owe their origin to the philosophical schools
of different philosophers. The reason is that when a philosopher wishes
to spread his ideas and beliefs, he formulates schemes of education
based on his Philosophy.
iv) Philosophy Determines all the Broad Aspects of Education
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All the problems of Education are problems of philosophy. It is
philosophy that provides aims to Education. These aims determine the
curriculum, the methods of teaching, the problems of school
organization and school discipline and also the role of the teacher in
the educational process. Thus, so long as we need aims of Education
based on the ultimate goal of life Philosophy will continue influencing
and determining both the matter and the method of Education. It will
continue making a unique contribution to the development of the
Educational theory and practice.
v) Modern Philosophies have a Special Impact
In 19th century, there was the influence of the concept of mechanism
on Physics, Psychology and Economics. Neo-Darwinism gave rise to the
acceptance of the principles of 'struggle for existence, cut-throat
competition, gradual process of adaptation of the purposiveness of life,
intellectualism and man's faith in reason. Emphasis on knowledge
received universal acceptance. In 20
th
century, the two world wars and
science reduced the faith in mere intellect. Humanism, faith in the
higher principles and values of life, character development and
emotional integration received greater impetus. There began a distrust
of mere logic. So, new schools of philosophy originated, trying to
synthesize science and religion. The present age is the age of reunion,
the period of synthesis, both in Philosophy and Education.
Schools of thought of educational philosophy
Different schools of Philosophy also differ in their concept of discipline.
While the idealists are in favour of punishment for maintaining order in
the class, the naturalists advocate perfect freedom to the child. They
believe in discipline by natural consequences. The pragmatists, on. the
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other hand, emphasises social discipline, which is maintained by the
proper direction of the pupil's natural impulses through co-operative
activities.
According to philosophical thinking, disciplinarians can be classified
under three heads:
1. Repressionists
2. Impressionists
3. Emancipationists
1. The Repressionists want absolute quiet and order even by means of
external pressure, fear, force and coercion. Their method is the
police method of control. The stick may be the first and the last
resort for them. The distinguishing feature of Repressionists is "Don't
do this, don't do that."
2. Impressionists, however, want to maintain order by better methods
and especially through the personality of the teacher. They know
that children are naturally submissive and therefore, can be brought
to order by the personality of teacher. In the words of John Adams.
"Impressionists are those, who still seek to dominate but without
using the savage ways of repression. They wish that the personality
of the teacher should be so imposing that the children have a sense
of awe. Indirect influence of the teacher should suffice to create
discipline among the children. There are other educational thinkers
who are Emancipationists. They believe in the inherent goodness of
children and believe that gradually an inner urge and conviction can
be created in them for observing laws and regulations. According to
John Adams we have certain control that is innate. If it is used wisely,
we can expect good results. If we use it ill, we expect bad results.
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3. The Emancipationists want to give complete freedom to the child.
They wish no interference on the part of the teacher. Their motto is
"that the pupils should have a chance to go along in their own way, to
make their own way, to make mistakes and to find the way to remedy
them on their own account." This is called free discipline, "which
children set up among themselves when they receive full opportunity
and encouragement." In the words of Robert Baden Powell, the main
step to success is to develop not to repress, the child's character. Let
him make his own mistakes. It is by these that he learns by experience".
There are others who believe "let the teacher give the pupils as much
rope as he can without disaster to the class as a whole, but he must
retain in the last resort the power of intervention and veto."
The first is the method of physical force, the second is the method of
persuasion and the third is the method of loye and understanding. No
one can deny that all these three are born out of Philosophy of the
person who is responsible for the maintenance of discipline or due to
the political philosophy prevailing at the time.
Question no.3) Discuss the Islamic philosophy of education and
highlight its implication in the present teaching process.
Answer: Islamic Philosophy of Education
Islam is a way of life. This means that Islam is not concerned with
religious ritual: it seeks to regulate human conduct in all fields of life
and spheres of action. It has set certain ideals, and the aim of Islamic
socio-political order is to provide necessary climate for the blossoming
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of such ideals to fruition. Such ideals are religious. educational, social,
moral intellectual, cultural, political and international.
1 The religious ideal is to establish belief in the Unity of God and
prophethood of Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) throughout the
world.
2. The social ideal is to create a pattern of social order where under
there are no distinctions of caste, creed. colour, the rich and the
poor.
3. The moral ideal is to make every person an embodiment of moral
virtues.
4. The intellectual ideal is to promote the acquisition of knowledge.
5. The cultural ideal is to bring about a wholesome synthesis between
the material and spiritual aspects of life.
6. The political ideal is to establish a welfare state.
7. The international ideal is to establish a universal state based on the
brotherhood of men establish a universal state based on the
brotherhood of men.
8. The educational ideal is to enable man to become vicegerent of
Allah.
From the educational point of view, all social behaviour must emanate
the permanent values of life given by the Holy Qur'an; because
education itself is a continuous process in which the present generation
of human beings passes on to its next future generation not only skills
and attitudes but also values beyond material goods. Thus, the
permanent values of life form the nucleus of the Qur’anic educational
philosophy around which all educational activities must revolve right
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from the elementary to the final stage of schooling. They must form an
integral part of the dynamic personality of the child from the very
moment of his/her birth. This is the only way to ensure world peace
and security , as changing values can never be trustworthy for even the
simplest of men.
Islam has given the world a philosophy, which gives standards of value
and judgment that apply to all spheres and activities of human life.
Unless that philosophy succeeds in broadening its range of application
and in giving Islamic concepts for all branches of knowledge it will not
be able to satisfy new generations and save them from the invasion of
divided purposes and paralysing doubts. The basic features of the
Islamic constitution, as embodied in the Qur’an and the Sunnah are the
nusus-e-qatai such as the belief in Allah and the Prophet and the basic
attitude that all human activity is in the way of Allah. Those who do not
have belief in these are not real Muslims. Islamic education has to
inculcate these beliefs and attitudes in Muslim youth.
Implication of Islamic Philosophy in Teaching Process
A teacher of Islamic system, who wants to be effective, must draw upon
many disciplines for the foundation of his art of teaching. Besides
having a thorough knowledge of his subject, he must know the man,
the society, the history and the Islamic philosophy of education in order
to formulate national aims, values and the future direction of
education in an Islamic society.
A teacher needs the study of Islamic philosophy as a person and as a
Muslim teacher. lt helps him to keep his manifold relations with his
pupils in imparting knowledge, in building up habits and in the gaining
of power and insight into the purposes and meanings of life. The
teacher, who assimilates the contribution of great thinkers and those,
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who do their own thinking of educational problems have the right to
take up this profession.
Frequently the teacher wonders why his best efforts have given him
meager achievements? At another time his policy is victim to many
pressure groups. A such difficulties prestige, greater knowledge and
experience and more mature personality for playing the role of a
leader. He would know when to allow freedom to his pupils to express
themselves.
The teacher is the person who communicates curriculum to students, In
Islamic system of education, a teacher needs to establish a relationship
with the pupil and the subject matter of instruction or curriculum. A
method of teaching and his conduct enables the teacher to achieve the
target. But the selection and use of appropriate teaching method raise
many questions such as:
1. Should the teacher dominate the classroom situation?
2. Should he only be a senior partner in the teaching-leaning
process, that is giving guidance to the pupils where required?
3. Should the pupil be allowed freedom?
All such questions and the problems that arise in the classroom
techniques, are satisfactorily tackled by Islamic philosophy of
education, provided the teacher has a fair background of it before he
ventures to enter the profession.
There is no aspect of education i.e. aims, curriculum, methods,
textbooks, discipline, teacher, student etc. which is not influenced and
determined by philosophy. In Islamic system, a teacher cannot do
without the study of Islamic philosophy of education.
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Islamic philosophy demands that training imparted to a Muslim must be
such that faith is infused into the whole of his personality and creates
an emotional attachment to Islam, enables him to follow the Qur'an
and the Sunnah and be governed by the Islamic system of values
willingly and joyfully so that he may proceed to the realisation of his
status as Khalifatullah to whom Allah has promised the authority of the
universe. With this purpose in view, education should cater for the
growth or man in all its aspects, spiritual, intellectual, imaginative,
physical, scientific, linguistic both individually and collectively and
motive all these aspects towards goodness and attainment of
perfection.
Khan, M.S. provides a list of following aims and objectives of
Islamic education derived by the application of Islamic philosophy of
education:
1. To provide the teachings of Holy Qur'an as first step of education.
2. To provide experiences, which are based on fundamentals of Islam,
as embodied in Holy Qur'an and Sunnah, and which cannot be
changed.
3. To provide experiences in the form of knowledge and skills with
clear understanding that these experiences are likely to be changed
in the light of changes in society.
4. To develop understanding that knowledge without the basis in faith
and religion is incomplete education.
5. To develop commitment towards the basic values which have been
prescribed in religion and scripture.
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6. To develop the sense of accountability towards Almighty Creator.
So that man passes his life like a faithful servant.
7. To encourage international brotherhood irrespective of differences
in generations, occupations and social class amongst the persons,
who are knit together by a common religion and faith.
8. To foster great consciousness of the Divine Presence in the
universe.
9. To bring man nearer to an understanding of God and of the relation
in which man stands to his Creator.
10. To develop piety and faith amongst the followers.
11. To produce man, who has faith as well as knowledge in spiritual
development.
12. To develop such qualities of a good man, which are universally
accepted by the societies, which have faith in religion.
Question no.4) In the light of Qur’anic verses discuss the importance of
moral values in Islamic system of education.
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Answer: Islamic Concept of Moral Values
Education is identified in islam as worship. The acquiring of knowledge
is worship, reading the Qur’an and pondering upon it is worship,
traveling to gain knowledge is worship.
The following Hadith shows how important and how rewarding
knowledge is:
Abu Hurairah ®Narated that the Prophet Muhammad(s.m) said
, “ He who treads the path in search of knowledge, Allāh will make that
path easy, leading to paradise for him and those persons who assemble
in one of the houses of Allah (mosques), recite the Book of Allah and
learn and teach the Quran (among themselves). There will descend
upon them tranquility, mercy will cover them, the angels will surround
them and Allah will mention them in the presence of those near him.
He who is slow-paced in doing good deeds, his (long) descent does not
make him go ahead.” “In another Hadith Abdullah ibn Abbas ® narrated
that Allah’s messenger Muhammad (s.m) said, “Acquiring knowledge in
company for an hour in the night is better than spending the whole
night in prayer. “In Islam; Education creates feelings of
love and respect in the heart of Muslim for Almighty Allah. Allāh says in
SuraFatir- only those from amongst His servants who possess
knowledge are the ones who fear Allāh; surely Allah Almighty is most
forgiving., Islam is the only ideological religion which creates
moral values, pious feelings and right thinking in any one’s heart. Islam
guides all the muslim to striving for gaining knowledge. The objective of
Islamic education is to keep muslim on right path. Acquiring the love of
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Allāh is the ultimate goal of human’s life. Allah’s mesenger said: “lf
anyone travels on a road in search of knowledge, Allah will cause him to
travel on one of the roads of paradise. The angels will lower their wings
in their great pleasure with one who seeks knowledge, the inhabitants
of the heavens and the earth and the fish in the deep waters will ask
forgiveness for the learned man. The superiority of the
learned man over the devout is like that of the moon, on the night
when it is full, over the rest of the stars. The learned are the heirs of the
Prophets, and the Prophets leave neither dinar nor
dirham, leaving only knowledge, and he who takes it, takes an
abundant portion.’” “Prophet
(S.m) also said about moral significant of education- “When a man dies,
his acts come to an end, but three, recurring charity, or knowledge (by
which people) benefit, or a pious son, who prays for him (the
deceased).S0, we can agree with the statement of socrates about
education and He said- “From know ledge comes virtue and goodness,
from ignorance comes all that is evil, No man willingly chooses what is
evil, and he does evil out of ignorance””
Morality may be defined as a science which interprets virtues and
mischiefs; it describes how man should behave towards himself and
others, what should be the aim of his actions. It also tells what are the
virtuous and mischievous and what are the ways of adopting virtuous
and avoiding mischievous. It shows that only the ways of virtuous and
mischievous do not compel individuals to be virtuous. It depends on
individual how he acts or does things. Islam has laid down some
universal fundamental rights for humanity as a whole, which are to be
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observed and respected under all circumstances. To achieve these
rights, Islam provides not only legal safeguards, but also a very effective
moral system. Thus, whatever leads to the welfare of the individual or
the society is morally good in Islam and whatever is injurious is morally
bad. Islam attaches so much importance to the love of God and love of
man that it warns against too much formalism. We read in the Qur'an:
“It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East or
West; but it is righteousness to believe in Allah and the Last Day and
the Angels and the Book and the Messengers; to spend of your
substance, out of love for Him, for your kin. for orphans, for the needy,
for the wayfarer, for those who ask and for the freeing of captives; to
be steadfast in prayers and practice regular charity: to fulfil the
contracts which you made and to be firm and patient in pain and
adversity and adversity and throughout all periods of panic. Such are
the people of truth, the Allah-conscious”.
We are given four directions:
1.Our faith should be true and sincere.
2.We must be prepared to show it in deeds of charity to our fellow
men.
3.We must be good citizens, supporting social organization.
4.Our own individual soul must be firm and unshaken in all
circumstances.
Moral values are universal. They are applied on individuals as well as
on all sectors of the society. The Islamic moral values are directly
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related to man himself and may be called “Code of Ethics” of Islam.
This code provides principles covering almost all aspects of human
conduct in this universe.
Qur’anic verses concerning Moral Values in Islamic system of
education
“And serve Allah, ascribe nothing as partner unto Him: (show) kindness
unto parents and unto near kindred and orphans and the needy and
unto the needy and unto the neighbour who is of kin (unto you) and
the neighbour who is not of kin and the fellow-traveller and the
wayfarer, and (the slaves) whom your right hands possess; Allah loveth
not such as are proud and boastful, who hoard their wealth and enjoin
avarice on others and hide that which Allah hath bestowed upon them
of His bounty; for disbelievers, We prepare a shameful doom. And
(also) for those who spend their wealth in order to be seen of men and
believe not in Allah nor the Last Day; who taketh Satan for comrade, a
bad comrade hath he."
In another passage, the Qur'an describes the characteristics of a Muslim
society:
"The believers are naught else than brethren; therefore make peace
between your brethren and observe your duty to Allah that haply ye
may obtain mercy, O ye who believe! Let not a folk deride a folk who
may be better than they are, nor let women (deride) women who may
be better than they are; neither defame one another, nor insult one
another by nicknames bad is the name of lewdness after embracing
the faith: and whose turneth not in repentance, such are evil-doers. O
ye who believe! Shun much suspicion: for lo! Some suspicion is crime:
and spy not, neither backbite one another; would one of you like to eat
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the flesh of his dead brother backbiting); ye abhor that (so abhor the
other); and keep your duty to Allah: lo! Allah is Relenting, Merciful."
Abolishing the ineluctable inequalities-based on race, colour of skin
language, place of birth-Islam has proclaimed the superiority of the
individual based solely on morality, which is a thing accessible and open
to everybody without exception. This is that Qur'an has said:
“O mankind, lo! We have created you of a male and a female and have
made you families and tribes that ye may know one another; verily the
noblest or you in the sight of Allah is the one who is the most pious; lo!
Allan Knower, Aware."
In a beautiful passage The Qur'an gives some commandments to the
Muslim community which are followed in Islamic educational system ;
1.“Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none but Him and that ye be
kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in thy life,
say not to them a word of contempt nor repel them, but address them
in terms of honour."
2.“And, out of kindness, Lower to them the wing of humility and say:
My Lord! Bestow on them Thy Mercy even as they cherished me in
childhood."
3.Your Lord knoweth best what is in your hearts: If ye do deeds of
righteousness, verily He is Most Forgiving to those who turn to Him
again and again (in true penitence)."
4. "And render to the kindred their due rights, as (also) to those in
want and to the wayfarer: but squander not (your wealth) in the
manner of a spendthrift."
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5. "Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones (Devils) and the
Evil One (Devil) is to his Lord (Himself) ungrateful,"
6. "And even if thou hast to turn away from them in pursuit of the
Mercy from thy Lord which thou dost expect, ye speak to them a word
of easy kindness."
7.“Make not thy hand tied (like a niggard's) to thy neck, nor stretch it
forth to its utmost reach, s0 that thou become blameworthy and
destitute."
"Verily thy lord doth provide sustenance in abundance for whom
He pleaseth and He provideth in a just measure: for He doth know and
regard all His servants."
"Kill not your children for fear of want: We shall provide
sustenance for them as well as for you: Verily the killing of them is a
great sin."
10."Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil,
opening the road (to other evils)."
11. "Nor take life-which Allah has made sacred-except for just cause.
And if anyone is slain wrongfully, We have given his heir authority (to
demand Qisas or to forgive): but let him not exceed bounds in the
matter of taking life: for he is helped (by the Law)."
12.“Come not nigh to the orphan's property except to improve it, until
he attains the age of full strength and fulfil (every) engagement that will
be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning).”
13.“Give full measure when ye measure, and weigh with a balance
that is straight: that is the most fitting and the most advantageous in
the final determination."
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14. "And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge: for ever act
of hearing, or of seeing, or of (Feeling in) the heart will be enquired into
(on the Day of Reckoning)."
15."Nor walk on the earth with insolence: for thou canst not rend the
earth asunder, nor reach the mountains in height."
16. "Of all such things the evil is hateful in the sight of thy Lord."
17. "These are among the (precepts of wisdom, which thy Lord has
revealed to thee. Take not, with Allah, another object of worship,
lest thou shouldn’t be thrown into Hell, blameworthy and reject.”
Islamic educational system is based on all above mentioned
commandments.
Question no.5) Critically analyze the role of teacher in four traditional
philosophies of education while focusing on aims of education of each
philosophy.
Answer: Idealism
Idealism and Aims of Education:
According to idealists, following are the major aims of education:
() Self-Realisation
Idealists believe that man being spiritual, is a supreme creation of God
Hence, the human Personality is the noblest one. So, idealists assume
that the foremost aim of education is to exalt his personality. This
exaltion of human personality means self-realization. The aim of
development of man is "a self-directed striving after a form to which it
has inherent impulse". Recognising the immense potentialities of a man
the idealists wish that the aim of education should be full realisation of
these potentialities, thus developing the personality completely. The
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aim is to enable each one to become his highest, truest self". This self-
realisation is not to be achieved by becoming selfish and an isolated
person, but the self-realisation must be achieved in social context.
Truths of life can be established and affirmed only in the context of the
society. According to Rusk, "education must enable mankind through its
culture to enter more and more fully into the spiritual realm and also to
enlarge the boundaries of the spiritual realm". Man, the idealists
believe, has two natures, original nature and spiritual nature. Education
must convert original nature into spiritual nature.
(ii) Preservation of culture
Idealists give much importance to the spiritual and cultural possessions
of the individual. At the same time, they contend that man has in him
the powers of retaining and creating such values. Hence one of the
premier tasks of education is to help in the process of transmission of
the spiritual and cultural inheritance of man. They believe that through
this transmission the preservation of culture can take place.
(iii) Development of a Moral Sense
The aim of education, according to idealism, is to develop the child's
moral sense, so that he can distinguish between the right and the
wrong. Education should enable him to develop a will power, so that he
follows the good and rejects evil. The child must develop a proper
sense of values and should practice them in his own life.
(iv) Development of Creative Powers
Man is not like other animals. He has thinking and reasoning powers. It
is these powers which lead to a creative genious in him. According to
idealism, education should enable the individual to develop these
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powers and modify the existing environment for a better and fuller
living.
(v) Development of Complete Man
The Idealists believe that physical development leads to intellectual
development, which in turn leads to the pursuit of moral values. Thus,
they believe in the development of the complete man. It is only a fully
developed individual who can engage himself in the pursuit of higher
ideals.
(vi) Simple Living and High Thinking
According to the Idealists this is also one of the aims of education. It is
only the persons who practice this ideal who can pursue great ideals of
life. It is only such an individual who can realise unity with the Creator.
(vii) Universal Education
The idealists believe that every man is equally the noblest work of God.
Hence, self-realisation, should not be confined to the favoured few, but
should be universal in nature. They, therefore, advocate universal
education.
Role of teacher in idealism
Teacher plays an important role in teaching-learning process. The
position of teacher in idealist scheme of education is vital. Idealism
assign a special role to teacher.
The teacher occupies an important place in the idealistic philosophy. He
is a mature individual with an idealistic outlook and takes the child from
darkness to light. Froebel has beautifully explained his position.
According to his view, the school is like a garden. the teacher is like a
gardener and the child is like a tender plant. This plant can only prosper
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