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REVIEW QUIZ
Biological Chemistry
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 2
Elements
Substance composed of only one type of atom that cannot be broken into simpler constituents by
chemical means
Compounds
Chemical combination of two or more elements
Atoms
Smallest particle of a chemical element that retains the properties of that element; particles that
combine to form molecules
Subatomic particles
Particles that make up atoms; neutrons, protons, electrons
Nucleus
Dense, central core of an atom
Protons
Positively charged subatomic particles
Neutrons
Neutral subatomic particles
Electrons
Small, negatively charged subatomic particles
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Atomic number
Number of protons in an atom of an element
Mass number (atomic mass)
Number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom of an element
Energy level
Limited region surrounding the nucleus of an atom at a certain distance containing electrons;
shell
Octet rule
Atoms with fewer or more than eight electrons in the outer energy level will attempt to lose, gain,
or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability
Inert
Stable element; maximum amount of electrons in outer shell
Atomic weight
Average atomic mass of an atom of an element as it is found in nature; atomic weights are usually
found in the periodic table of elements
Radioisotope
Unstable isotope that undergoes nuclear breakdown and emits nuclear particles and radiation
Decay
Emition of nuclear particles and radiation
Chemical reaction
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Interaction between two or more atoms that occurs as a result of activity between electrons in
their outermost energy levels
Molecules
Two or more atoms covalently joined together
Chemical bonds
Energy relationship joining two or more atoms; involves sharing or exchange of electrons
Ions
Electrically charged atom or group of atoms
Ionic bond (electrovalent bond)
Formed by transfer of electrons; strong electrostatic force that binds positively and negatively
charged ions together
Covalent bond
Formed by sharing of electron pairs between atoms
Single covalent bond
Covalent bond with only one pair of shared electrons
Double covalent bond
Covalent bond with two pairs of shared electrons
Hydrogen bond
Weak chemical bond that occurs between the partial positive charge on a hydrogen atom
covalently bound to a nitrogen or oxygen atom and the partial negative charge of another polar
molecule
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Polar molecule
Molecule in which the electrical charge is not evenly distributed, causing one side of the molecule
to be more positive or negative than the other
Synthesis reaction
Combining of two or more substances to form a more complex substance
A + B -> AB
Decomposition reaction
Breaking down of a substance into two or more simpler substances
AB -> A + B
Exchange reaction
Decomposition of two substances and, in exchange, synthesis of two new compounds
AB + CD -> AD + BC
Reversible reaction
Occur in both directions
A + B AB
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells
Catabolism
Chemical reactions that break down complex compounds into simpler ones and release energy
Anabolism
Chemical reactionns that join simple molecules together to form more complex molecules
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Broken down to supply energy for anabolism
Hydrolysis
Chemical process in which a compound is split by addition of H+ and OH- portions of a water
molecule
Dehydration synthesis
Anabolic process by which molecules are joined to form larger molecules; often called
condensation reaction because it joins molecules together into a denser mass
Organic compound
Contain covalently bound carbon and hydrogen atoms and are involved in metabolic reactions
Inorganic compound
Chemical constituents that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen
Functional groups
Small cluster of atoms in an organic molecule that gives the molecule particular functional
characteristics such as certain chemical binding properties; often represented generically by the
letter R
Property of water
Strong polarity
Polar water molecules attract other polar compounds, which causes them to dissociate/separate
Property of water
High specific heat
Hydrogen bonds absorb heat when they break and release heat when they form, thereby
minimizing temperature changes
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Property of water
High heat of vaporation
Many hydrogen bonds must be broken for water to evaporate
Property of water
Cohesion
Hydrogen bonds hold molecules of water together
Oxygen (O2)
Required to complete the decomposition reactions required for the release of energy from
nutrients burned by the cell

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REVIEW QUIZ Biological Chemistry Anatomy & Physiology – Chapter 2 Elements Substance composed of only one type of atom that cannot be broken into simpler constituents by chemical means Compounds Chemical combination of two or more elements Atoms Smallest particle of a chemical element that retains the properties of that element; particles that combine to form molecules Subatomic particles Particles that make up atoms; neutrons, protons, electrons Nucleus Dense, central core of an atom Protons Positively charged subatomic particles Neutrons Neutral subatomic particles Electrons Small, negatively charged subatomic particles Atomic number Number of protons in an atom of an element Mass number (atomic mass) Number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom of an element Energy level Limited region surrounding the nucleus of an atom at a certain distance containing electrons; shell Octet rule Atoms with fewer or more than eight electrons in the outer energy level will attempt to lose, gain, or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability Inert Stable element; maximum amount of electrons in outer shell Atomic weight Average atomic mass of an atom of an element as it is found in nature; atomic weights are usually found in the periodic table of elements Radioisotope Unstable isotope that undergoes nuclear breakdown and emits nuclear particles and radiation Decay Emition of nuclear particles and radiation Chemical reaction Interaction between two or more atoms that occurs as a result of activity between electrons in their outermost energy levels Molecules Two or more atoms covalently joined together Chemical bonds Energy relationship joining two or more atoms; involves sharing or exchange of electrons Ions Electrically charged atom or group of atoms Ionic bond (electrovalent bond) Formed by transfer of electrons; strong electrostatic force that binds positively and negatively charged ions together Covalent bond Formed by sharing of electron pairs between atoms Single covalent bond Covalent bond with only one pair of shared electrons Double covalent bond Covalent bond with two pairs of shared electrons Hydrogen bond Weak chemical bond that occurs between the partial positive charge on a hydrogen atom covalently bound to a nitrogen or oxygen atom and the partial negative charge of another polar molecule Polar molecule Molecule in which the electrical charge is not evenly distributed, causing one side of the molecule to be more positive or negative than the other Synthesis reaction Combining of two or more substances to form a more complex substance A + B -> AB Decomposition reaction Breaking down of a substance into two or more simpler substances AB -> A + B Exchange reaction Decomposition of two substances and, in exchange, synthesis of two new compounds AB + CD -> AD + BC Reversible reaction Occur in both directions A + B  AB Metabolism All of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells Catabolism Chemical reactions that break down complex compounds into simpler ones and release energy Anabolism Chemical reactionns that join simple molecules together to form more complex molecules Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Broken down to supply energy for anabolism Hydrolysis Chemical process in which a compound is split by addition of H+ and OH- portions of a water molecule Dehydration synthesis Anabolic process by which molecules are joined to form larger molecules; often called condensation reaction because it joins molecules together into a denser mass Organic compound Contain covalently bound carbon and hydrogen atoms and are involved in metabolic reactions Inorganic compound Chemical constituents that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen Functional groups Small cluster of atoms in an organic molecule that gives the molecule particular functional characteristics such as certain chemical binding properties; often represented generically by the letter R Property of water Strong polarity Polar water molecules attract other polar compounds, which causes them to dissociate/separate Property of water High specific heat Hydrogen bonds absorb heat when they break and release heat when they form, thereby minimizing temperature changes Property of water High heat of vaporation Many hydrogen bonds must be broken for water to evaporate Property of water Cohesion Hydrogen bonds hold molecules of water together Oxygen (O2) Required to complete the decomposition reactions required for the release of energy from nutrients burned by the cell Name: Description: ...
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