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NAME: BAI JASMIN M. ULANGKAYA YR/CRS/SEC: 1 BSND-A
10 PRINCIPLES OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS
1) Flavones
• White vegetables like potato and onion have pigment.
• Pigment remains white in acidic conditions but becomes yellow in alkaline
media.
• TIP: While the white vegetables are cooking, cover them with a lid and let
them simmer for a few minutes before seasoning with a little lemon juice or
vinegar.
2) Curdle
• High temperatures, tannins, acids, enzymes, and other things are all to
blame.
Proteins cluster together to produce curds, which are protein clumps.
• Tannins, which may be found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, can
cause curdling.
3) Cook vegetables uncovered to allow the volatile acid to escape.
• Quickly cook them until they're al dente.
• After boiling, shock or refresh the vegetables by immersing them in cold
water to halt the cooking process.
• It prevents acid accumulation and improves color retention.
4) Green color in green vegetables due to the presence of a pigment know
as chlorophyll.
• When PH affects the pigment, it reacts with the heat present and is
destroyed.
• Green vegetables turn olive green in an acidic environment, but dazzling
green in an alkaline environment.
• The plant's inherent acid is leached into the cooking process and trapped,
generating an acid medium.
5) Factors responsible for nutrient loss are high heat or temperature.
• Excessive liquid, which promotes leaching, as well as the usage of alkalis,
result in some nutritional loss in vegetables.
• Cooking time is reduced when pressure steam is used.
• Simmering is less efficient than boiling.
6) Proteins
• Compared to meat, fish, and poultry, vegetables have a lower
concentration.
• Proteins become rigid or start to coagulate when heated.
• Proteins get tougher and shrink as the temperature rises; when exposed to
extremely high temperatures, proteins become harsh and dry.
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7) Cut vegetables in various sizes and shapes for various cooking purposes
creating different textures, taste and mouth feel.
• Shredded cabbage has a distinct flavor than chopped cabbage in salad.
• Be aware of the effects of heat and be knowledgeable about your
vegetables.
• Be familiar with your equipment.
8) Fruits in cooking
• Fruits may be found in a variety of baked foods, including cookies, muffins,
yoghurt, ice cream, and cakes.
• Used in the creation of a variety of dishes as well as the preservation of the
freshness and color of some foods.
• Because the great heat caramelizes the sugar, barbecuing and grilling fruit
resulting in an extremely sweet, strong flavor.
9) Drying fruit
• It's a fantastic way to keep fruits fresh.
• It also improves the flavor.
• The bulk of the fruit can be dried effectively.
10) Grilled or barbecued fruits make fantastic desserts, side dishes or
appetizers.
• Grilling apples and pears is simple.
• Fruits can be preserved whole or as jellies, jams, pickles, or
chutneys.
• Chutneys, jams, and jellies are best made using underripe fruit,
whereas overripe fruit is only appropriate for chutneys and should not
be used to produce jam.

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NAME: BAI JASMIN M. ULANGKAYA YR/CRS/SEC: 1 BSND-A 10 PRINCIPLES OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS 1) Flavones • White vegetables like potato and onion have pigment. • Pigment remains white in acidic conditions but becomes yellow in alkaline media. • TIP: While the white vegetables are cooking, cover them with a lid and let them simmer for a few minutes before seasoning with a little lemon juice or vinegar. 2) Curdle • High temperatures, tannins, acids, enzymes, and other things are all to blame. • Proteins cluster together to produce curds, which are protein clumps. • Tannins, which may be found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, can cause curdling. 3) Cook vegetables uncovered to allow the volatile acid to escape. • Quickly cook them until they're al dente. • After boiling, shock or refresh the vegetables by immersing them in cold water to halt the cooking process. • It prevents acid accumulation and improves color retention. 4) Green color in green vegetables due to the presence of a pigment know as chlorophyll. • When PH affects the pigment, it reacts with the heat present and is destroyed. • Green vegetables turn olive green in an acidic environment, but dazzling green in an alkaline environment. • The plant's inherent acid is leached into the cooking process and trapped, generating an acid medium. 5) Factors responsible for nutrient loss are high heat or temperature. • Excessive liquid, which promotes leaching, as well as the usage of alkalis, result in some nutritional loss in vegetables. • Cooking time is reduced when pressure steam is used. • Simmering is less efficient than boiling. 6) Proteins • Compared to meat, fish, and poultry, vegetables have a lower concentration. • Proteins become rigid or start to coagulate when heated. • Proteins get tougher and shrink as the temperature rises; when exposed to extremely high temperatures, proteins become harsh and dry. 7) Cut vegetables in various sizes and shapes for various cooking purposes creating different textures, taste and mouth feel. • Shredded cabbage has a distinct flavor than chopped cabbage in salad. • Be aware of the effects of heat and be knowledgeable about your vegetables. • Be familiar with your equipment. 8) Fruits in cooking • Fruits may be found in a variety of baked foods, including cookies, muffins, yoghurt, ice cream, and cakes. • Used in the creation of a variety of dishes as well as the preservation of the freshness and color of some foods. • Because the great heat caramelizes the sugar, barbecuing and grilling fruit resulting in an extremely sweet, strong flavor. 9) Drying fruit • It's a fantastic way to keep fruits fresh. • It also improves the flavor. • The bulk of the fruit can be dried effectively. 10) Grilled or barbecued fruits make fantastic desserts, side dishes or appetizers. • Grilling apples and pears is simple. • Fruits can be preserved whole or as jellies, jams, pickles, or chutneys. • Chutneys, jams, and jellies are best made using underripe fruit, whereas overripe fruit is only appropriate for chutneys and should not be used to produce jam. Name: Description: ...
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