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Therefore the sun produces the same acceleration of both
the earth and the moon and their relative acceleration is due
only to the mutual gravitational forces between the earth and
the moon. Similar remarks apply to Jupiter and its moons, and
to Saturn and its moons.
Direct measurement of the proportionality constant G in
the force law eqn.( 3.24) is difficult since the gravitational
force is very small for experimentally accessible values of the
masses and distance. The first accurate determination of G,
obtained by direct measurement of the force between two
known masses at a known separation, was performed by
Cavendish in 1798[Ph.00]. The accepted value today is G =
6.67384×10
11
m
3
kg
1
s
2
=
6.67384×10
11
N m
2
/kg
2
[TN]. Since the acceleration g of a
freely falling body at the earth’s surface is given by
(3.25)
we can calculate the mass of the earth M
e
from the known
values of g, G, and R
e
. One finds M
e
= 5.97 × 10
24
kg.

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Therefore the sun produces the same acceleration of both the earth and the moon and their relative acceleration is due only to the mutual gravitational forces between the earth and the moon. Similar remarks apply to Jupiter and its moons, and to Saturn and its moons. Direct measurement of the proportionality constant G in the force law eqn.( 3.24) is difficult since the gravitational force is very small for experimentally accessible values of the masses and distance. The first accurate determination of G, obtained by direct measurement of the force between two known masses at a known separation, was performed by Cavendish in 1798[Ph.00]. The accepted value today is G = 6.67384×10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2 = 6.67384×10−11 N − m2/kg2[TN]. Since the acceleration g of a freely falling body at the earth’s surface is given by (3.25) we can calculate the mass of the earth Me from the known values of g, G, and Re. One finds Me = 5.97 × 1024 kg. Name: Description: ...
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