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Unit 2: Solving
I
a Biolog
ical Problem
Short Questions
1.
Do you think that "Man has always been a biologist"? If so why?
Ans:
A man has always been a biologist. He had to be a biologist in order to live. Early in history,
he was hunter of animals and a gatherer of fruits, seeds, roots etc. The more he knew about
animals and their habitat, the more successful hunter he was. The more he knew about plants,
the better he distinguished between edible and non-edible plants.
2.
Define Biological Method.
Ans:
"The scientific method, in which biological problems are solved, is termed as Biological
Method."
It comprises the steps a biologist adopts in order to solve a biological problem.
3. How biological method has played an important part in scientific research?
Ans:
The biological method has played an instrumental role in scientific research for almost 500
years.
From Galileo's experiment back in the 1590's to current research, the biological method
has contributed to advancements in medicine, ecology, technology, etc.
The biological method ensures the quality of data for public use.
4. Write steps of Biological Method in a sequence.
Ans:
Biological method involves the following main steps:
Recognition of a biological problem
Observations
Hypothesis formulation
Deductions
Experimentation
Summarization of results (tables, graphics etc.)
Reporting the results
5. Define Biological Problem.
Ans:
"A question related to living organisms that is either asked by someone or comes in
biologist's mind by himself is called biological problem".
Example:
Malaria
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6. What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative observations?
Ans:
QUALITATIVE OBSERVATIONS
QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATIONS
Qualitative observations are considered
less accurate
These observations are variable and
less measurable.
These cannot be recorded in terms of
numbers.
Examples:
The freezing point of water is colder
than its Boiling Point.
A liter of water is heavier than a liter of
ethanol.
7.
Why quantitative observations are better in biological method?
Ans:
Quantitative observations are better because these are invariable and measureable and can be
recorded in terms of numbers.
Example:
The freezing point of water is 0°C and the boiling point is 100°C.
8.
How did Darwin formulate the theory of evolution?
Ans:
Darwin not only observed and took notes during his voyage, but he also read the works of
other naturalists to form his theory of Evolution.
9.
Define hypothesis?
Ans:
"A tentative explanation of the observations is called hypothesis."
OR
"A proposition that might be true is called hypothesis."
Example:
Plasmodium is the cause of malaria
10.
How hypothesis is framed?
Ans:
A great deal of careful and creative thinking is necessary for the formulation of a hypothesis.
Biologists use reasoning to formulate a hypothesis.
11.
What are the characteristics of a good hypothesis?
Ans:
A good hypothesis should have the following characteristics:
It should be a general statement
It should be a tentative idea.
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It should agree with available observations.
It should be kept as simple as possible.
It should be testable and potentially falsifiable. In other words, there should be a way to
show that the hypothesis is false, a way to disprove the hypothesis.
12.
Define deductions. How deduction are formed?
Ans:
"The logical consequences of a hypothesis are called deductions".
Formulation:
For this purpose, a hypothesis is taken as true and expected results are drawn from it.
Generally, in a biological method, if a particular hypothesis is true, then one should expect
(deduction) a certain result. It involves the use of "if-then" logic.
13.
Develop a deduction from the following hypothesis.
"All plant cells have a nucleus."
Ans:
"If I examine cells from a blade of grass, then each one will have a nucleus."
14.
Why a biologist go for experimentation during solving a biological problem?
Ans:
A biologist performs experiments to see if hypothesis are true or not.
The deductions which are drawn from hypothesis are subjected to rigorous testing. Through
experimentation, a biologist learns which hypothesis is correct.
15.
What is control in an experiment?
Ans:
In science, when doing an experiment, it must be a controlled experiment. A scientist must
contrast an 'experimental group' with a 'control group'.
The two groups are treated exactly alike except for the one variable being tested.
Example:
In an experiment to test the necessity for carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, one can
contrast the control group (a plant with freely available carbon dioxide) with an experimental
group (a plant with no carbon dioxide available). The necessity of carbon dioxide will be
proved when photosynthesis occurs in the control group and does not occur in the
experimental group.
16.
What are different ways of reporting results of biological method?
Ans:
Biologists publish their findings in scientific journals and books, in talks at national and
international meetings and in seminars at colleges and universities.
Importance:
Publishing of results is an essential part of the scientific method. It allows other people to
verify the results or apply the knowledge to solve other problems.
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17. How did physicians describe malaria in early days?
Ans:
The early physicians described malaria as a disease of chills and fevers with recurring
attacks.
They also observed that the disease was more common among people living in low,
marshy areas.
18.
What was the possible cause of malaria in early days?
Ans: