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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Electronics Engineering
“Automatic Rice Hull Carbonizer as a Substrate to Organic Fertilizer and Soil
Conditioner”
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the completion of the subject
Project Study (EC520P2)
Submitted to:
Engr. Allan S. Cabanlong
Professor
Submitted By:
Group 1
March 3, 2012
Date
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE .............................................................................................................. 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................. 2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................. 4
CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
I. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 5
II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ..................................................................... 7
III. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY .......................................................................... 8
General Objective............................................................................................... 8
Specific Objectives ............................................................................................. 8
IV. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ...................................................................... 9
V. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY .................................................. 10
VI. DEFINITION OF TERMS ................................................................................. 11
CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND RELATED LITERATURE
I. RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES ...................................................... 13
II. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK/RESEARCH PARADIGM ............................. 17
III. HYPOTHESIS ............................................................................................... 18
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
I. PROJECT DESIGN ....................................................................................... 19
II. PROJECT DEVELOPMENT .......................................................................... 22
IV. OPERATION AND TESTING PROCEDURE ................................................. 23
V. EVALUATION PROCEDURE ........................................................................ 23
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CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS ............. 24
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ................. 33
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................... 35
APPENDICES .......................................................................................................... 36
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Our sincerest appreciation must be extended to all of our instructors,
particularly to Engineer Allan S. Cabanlong for providing us with additional facts
regarding our project design and for giving us some important information about the
current project that we are working.
We would also like to express our deepest gratitude to our families especially
to our very loving parents who have been supporting us for the past years of our
lives. For serving as our inspiration and helping us surpass all the trials that we have
to been through. They are the reason of our existence.
For friends, comrades and other acquaintances who are always behind us in
all of our undertakings. They are the ones who are with us in our journey as we
travel the path called life.
Lastly, we would like to thank our Heavenly Father, our Almighty God for
bestowing wisdom, faith and hope. He is the source of our strength, our happiness,
the Divine Being who makes us complete and the center of our lives. To God be the
glory!
Apolinar, Edison
Damasco, Philip Joseph
Emerenciana, Dave Benedict
Martinez, Loe Arle
Mercado, Suzette
Nacana, Jocebel
Talamayan, Elvin
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CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
This chapter introduces the problem and explain the statement of the
problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitations of
the study.
Introduction
Rice hull (or husk or ipa) is the outermost layer covering the rice grain. It is
made up of hard materials, including opaline silica and lignin. It is commonly
detached during milling and most often burnt and turned into waste. Rice hull is
considered
th
e
m
o
st
unwanted
rice by-
produ
ct
b
y m
ajori
ty
o
f th
e
rice
m
illers
and
some farmers throughout the regions. Rice hull disposal has become a problem
especially to millers who dump and burn these along roadsides, much as the
smoke pesters the motorists, commuters, and the community dwellers. At PhilRice,
researchers have found that this unwanted rice hull can be carbonized for different
purposes.
Carbonized rice hull or simply CRH can be very useful especially to the
farmers. When mixed with other organic materials, CRH can be a good source of
organic fertilizer. It may also serve as soil conditioner by replenishing the nutrients
and other microelements in the soil that were lost due to continuous cropping. CRH
can also be a pest control agent. It contains silica which can irritate the golden kuhol.
When applied after levelling, snails are forced to come out, making handpicking
faster and easier.
The carbonized rice hull is a result of the incomplete combustion of rice hulls
under high heat and low oxygen conditions also called pyrolysis. Pyrolysis causes
the decomposition of organic materials such as lignin and cellulose, leaving a
residue of carbon and mineral nutrients. Breaking down the lignin accelerates
decomposition of the rice hulls and the subsequent release of nutrients. When CRH
is incorporated with other organic fertilizer, it provides a carbon source for
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microorganisms to balance the high nitrogen content of the manure. Carbonization
conserves the physical structure of the rice hull which provides a colonization site for
beneficial microorganisms, contributes to soil permeability and water retention, and
improves aeration of the soil. Carbonized rice hulls also contain nutrients such as
potassium, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium and other microelements.
Every year, the Philippines is producing about 3.1 million metric tons (M mt) of
rice hull from about 14 M mt of palay. But most of this is just wasted because many
rice-based farmers and entrepreneurs have limited knowledge on how to properly
manage it. Rice hull, if properly managed, can prevent environmental and human
health hazards with an increasing the productivity of the users.
Production of carbonized rice hull can be done in a dry and level area. It can
be carbonized by putting rice hull around the carbonizer or a chimney. It needs
constant mixing so that the rice hull will be cooked evenly. When the rice hulls turn
black, it needs to be sprinkled with water to extinguish the fire. The rice hull must not
be over burned as it will turn into ash. Ash is not good for incorporating in the
planting medium because it will behave like cement. It will not make the soil porous.
Rice hull production produces smoke and release toxic gases. The smoke
suspended in the air released during burning can be very irritating to people‟s health.
People who are exposed to toxic gases can experience eye and nose irritation,
breathing difficulty, coughing, and headaches.
The making of the carbonized rice hull also needs a constant mixer to cook
the rice hull evenly. Time should be given emphasis in creating the carbonized rice
hull. It should be guarded to prevent the rice hull from over burning that will result to
ashes.
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Statement of the Problem
The major problem for this project is the manual production of the carbonized
rice hull. These are produced or made by manually burning the rice hull with
continuous mixing to cook the rice hull evenly and to prevent the rice hull from over
burning that will result to ashes.
Another problem that must be resolved was the environmental and human
health hazards. Rice hulls are being burned and those that were turned into ashes
can affect the plants; also burning and smoke emissions can harm human health
because of exposure to toxic gases.
Lastly, it will resolve the problem regarding the high farm input cost such as
fertilizer and insecticide. Farmers are spending a lot of money to improve their plant
production by means of buying inorganic fertilizers that sometimes bring side effects
to the plants.
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Objectives of the Study
General Objectives
To be able to construct and create a patentable prototype that could
unleash our skills and knowledge as Electronics and Communications
Engineering students.
To apply our acquirement through a well- documented project with a
simple prototype and a very minimal expenditure.
To be able to create an environmental friendly project that would be
beneficial not only for us researchers but most especially to the farmers
and to the nature.
Specific Objectives
To be able to create an automated carbonizer for the rice hull. As we
all know that once the rice hull is exposed to fire it could be burned
easily and will turn the material into ashes and if this thing happens it
can increase the alkalinity of the soil that will affect plant nutrition.
To create an Electric heating that will be used not just to avoid toxic or
dangerous emission for those who will be doing this manually but also
total control heating at exact temperature that could create a uniformed
output.
To be able to achieve a desired exact output that can be sold in the
market, the carbonized rice hull (CRH) that can be used as soil
conditioner and fertilizer as well as an ideal material for growing high
value crops and the device itself.
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Significance of the Study
Our research entitled “Automatic Rice Hull Carbonizer as a Substrate to
Organic Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner” would be very beneficial to the following:
The field of agriculture would benefit from our research for it will resolve the
problem regarding the high farm input cost such as fertilizer and insecticide.
Since farmers are spending a lot of money to improve their plant production
by means of buying inorganic fertilizers that sometimes bring side effects to
the plants, a new material from what farmers think was just a waste will be
produced. Here, a cheaper and readily available product will give them the
same benefit of using inorganic fertilizer, but this time it is less cost.
For the researchers, this research will help in a way that even though
they have graduated, the prototype and the CRH that can be produce through
this can be used. After graduation, the project will not just be a part of
completion of the course, but it is really applicable and is really a working
device. The researchers can sell this prototype in the market or they
themselves can start the automated production of CRH.
For the farmers, this research would create an additional income. Since they
just dump these waste materials that farmers on rice fields, this time it will
become useful in a way that it will be converted to another form of material
that can be use as substrate to organic fertilizer. Not only can rice hull be
used for other purposes, but also as another source of income.
Waste will not just be minimized, additional income for the farmers will not
just be attained but most of all, this research aims to help our environment.
Instead of dumping or burning waste materials until it turn to ashes like the
rice hull, why not use it for the plants or for water filter. When burned, rice hull
emits unfiltered smoke such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other
gases which does not only contribute to global warming but also causes
health problems.
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Scope and Limitations of the Study
This project can only process 1kg of rice hull because of the project‟s physical size.
The prototype of the project can be used by farmers to produce Carbonized Rice
Hull (CRH).
Since this will be the first time that the production of CRH is automated, the project
will not be having wide coverage. Also funds are limited so; the system is created for
only specific amount of CRH to be produced.
Electronic Ignition will produce the combustion carbonizing the rice hull; also the
prototype should be enclosed so that no air will come inside to burn the rice hull into
ashes.
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Definition of Terms
Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element
by mass in the Earth's crust. Calcium is also the fifth-most-abundant dissolved ion
in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium,
and sulfate.
Carbonized Rice Hull (CRH) this is produced if the burning process is incomplete.
This is usually black, often still in the shape of the husk and depending on the
combustion, it still contains 8 15% carbon.
Cellulose is the structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants,
many forms of algae and the oomycetes.
Enzyme In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process,
called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products.
Inoculant carrier for rhizobia, a nitrogen-fixing bacteria found in the roots of
legumes.
Lignin large amount of the phenyl propanoid structural polymer.
Magnesium is the fourth most common element in the Earth as a whole (behind
iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of
planet's mantle.
Microorganism is a microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell
(unicellular), cell clusters, or no cell at all
Phenyl Propanoid are a diverse family of organic compounds that are
synthesized by plants from the amino acid phenylalanine.
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Phosphorous a multivalent non-metal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a
mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidized state, as
inorganic phosphate rocks.
Porous is a measure of the void (i.e., "empty") spaces in a material, and is a
fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 01, or as
a percentage between 0100%.
Potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very
reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the
reaction.
Rice Hull the outermost layer of the paddy grain is the rice husk. It is separated
from brown rice in the milling.
Rice Husk Ash (RHA) produced by the over burning of rice husk. It can be
described as a white, fine structure containing around 85 90% amorphous silica
around 25% of the weight of husk.
Pyrolysis is a form of treatment that chemically decomposes organic materials by
heat in the absence of oxygen.
Substrate a molecule that is acted upon by an enzyme
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CHAPTER 2
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND RELATED LITERATURE
Related Literature and Studies
The prevalence of improper waste disposal had occurred because of the lack
of knowledge regarding the proper allocation of these resources. Sometimes, things
are perceived as unprofitable because people were treating them as waste
materials. The proponents primarily choose the topic “Automatic Rice Hull
Carbonizer as a Substrate to Organic Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner” because of the
abundant resources around us, and resources are one of the most important factors
to consider before conducting a research or study. Since many of us and even our
farmers treat rice hull as garbage, the proponents were able to design a control
system that will reuse it in such a way that is helpful to the environment as well as a
source of income for the farmers. The existence of Carbonized Rice Hull was not
new. It has been produced before but in a manual and inaccurate manner. The
proponents were able to found out that there are a lot of studies before that is related
to the one presented now.
“The rice hulls are unique within nature. They contain approximately 20%
opaline silica in combination with a large amount of the phenyl propanoid structural
polymer called lignin.”
1
Rice
hull
is
considered
t
he
m
o
st
unwanted
rice by-
produ
ct
b
y m
ajori
ty
o
f
the
rice millers and some farmers throughout the regions.”
2
Rice hull disposal has
become a problem especially to millers who dump and burn these along roadsides,
much as the smoke pesters the motorists, commuters, and the community dwellers.
Today, rice husk is becoming increasingly useful as new uses are being
popularized. One product that is becoming increasingly popular is the carbonized
1
The Rice Hull House p. 1 , Olivier, P.A., Ph.D,
2
Rice Hull Technology Bulletin (Carbonized Rice Hull) p. 1, Sebastian, L.S.
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rice hull, CRH for short. “To produce CRH, raw rice hull is burned without air so that
it will not turn into ash. CRH is sterile and is free from disease organisms.”
3
“More than 100,000,000 metric tons of rice hulls are generated each year
throughout the world.
4
Every year, the Philippines is producing about 3.1 million
metric tons (Mmt) of rice hull from about 14Mmt palay.”
5
Carbonized rice hull (CRH) is made from incomplete or partial burning of rice
hull. It is porous and bulky with uniform intact black particles. It contains
phosphorous (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and micronutrients
vital to growing crops.
6
Because it is also sterilized, it is free from disease
organisms. It has many uses ranging from agricultural to industrial purposes. Aside
from this, it has also been discovered for medical and home uses.
CRH are Black, often still in the shape of the husk and depending on the
combustion it still contains 8-15% carbon.
7
CRH can be used as substrate to organic
fertilizer.
8
When mixed with other organic materials, CRH can be a good source
of organic fertilizer (OF).At PhilRice, the basic mixture of organic fertilizer consists
of animal manure (4 parts), CRH (4 parts), rice bran (1 part), and compost (1 part) to
produce a good yield.
Rice hull “ipa” used to be a big problem of rice millers, especially in big rice
producing areas such as Nueva Ecija and other Central Luzon provinces. It was
usually considered a waste product that had to be thrown away. Thus, we used to
see big piles of rice husk along the highway. There have been very limited uses for
rice hull in the past.
There are a number of benefits from using CRH for brooding chicks instead of
the usual raw rice hull. Being sterile, CRH minimizes disease contamination. CRH
3
http://www.agribusinessweek.com/carbonized-rice-hull-has-important-uses/
4
Velupillai (1996), p. 15
5
Rice Hull Technology Bulletin (Carbonized Rice Hull) p. 2, Sebastian, L.S.
6
http://naturalhomes.org/img/ricehullhouse.pdf
7
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/rice-milling/byproducts-and-their-utilization/rice-husk
8
Rice Hull Technology Bulletin (Carbonized Rice Hull) p. 3, Sebastian, L.S.
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readily absorbs the moisture in the manure so the litter does not get moist and not
attractive to flies. When the litter is treated with an enzyme (Biosec) formulated by
Dr. Sumaoang
9
, the usual odor from the manure is eliminated. At the same time, the
enzymes break down the nutrients found in the manure so that when brooding is
over, the litter would have become an organic fertilizer that is ready to use on crops.
Dr. Sumaoang explains that Biosec is a combination of live but immobilized
beneficial microorganisms and digestive enzymes. Once applied, the beneficial
microorganisms multiply very rapidly, inhibiting the growth of disease-causing
organisms like E. coli, salmonella and others. The enzymes, on the other hand,
break down the food nutrients in the manure into simpler forms that could be readily
absorbed by plants.
Dr. Sumaoang observes that chicks grown on CRH litter grow faster and are
more uniform in size. They are healthier because CRH does not allow the
proliferation of harmful organisms that often cause respiratory diseases and
diarrhea.
At the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) in Nueva Ecija, there‟s a
showcase of a pigpen where carbonized rice hull, about one foot deep, serves as
flooring instead of the usual cement floor. The pigpen does not have to be washed
with water every day. In fact, it does not get washed for the entire growing period of
four months. The manure and urine of the pigs get buried in the carbonized rice hull.
The usual foul smell is practically eliminated. And when the pigs attain market size
and are sold, the litter is collected and used as organic fertilizer for vegetables, rice
and other crops.
CRH is also very useful in rice farming. Twenty bags of CRH combined with
organic fertilizer or compost may be applied in one hectare. It could be plowed in
during land preparation. This will make the land not only more porous for better plant
growth; it will also enable the soil to retain the moisture much longer. Thus, when
9
Dr. Sumaoang biochemist
Zac B. Sarian, Agri Plain Talk “Organic fertilizer from coir dust”.
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