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Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature and Studies
- the process of compiling, classifying, and
evaluating what other researchers have written
on a specific topic
Related Literature
examines facts and principles from published
materials or other resources that are related to
the present study
defines/clarifies the following:
major variables (central idea of the
entire literature)
sub-variables (help specify which
particular aspect of the major variable is
being referred to,
indicators (specific information that
describes the sub-variables)
Related Studies
includes theses or dissertations on research
topics carrying the same variables
serves as a basis of the analysis of results
because it allows the researcher to compare and
contrast findings with those of past studies
indicate the name of the author, date and
setting as in where and when the study was
conducted, the title, and salient findings
Styles or Approaches of RRL
Traditional Review
the summary resembles that of an essay where series
of united sentences presents the RRL results
the structure varies based on the subject and area of
specialization
Systematic Review
based on research questions
Structure of RRL
1. Introduction explain the organizational
method of your literature review
2. Headings and Subheadings indicate the right
placement of supporting statements
3. Synthesis concisely restate the main point;
relate the gathered data to the central theme or
problem
- composed of both local and foreign RELATED
LITERATURE and RELATED STUDIES
Process of RRL
Stage 1: Search for the Literature
Look for sources of knowledge, data, or
information
Access sources manually (getting hold of
printed form of the material) and
electronically (having computer or
online reading of the sources of
knowledge)
Types of Literature Sources:
General references direct you to the
location of other sources
Primary Sources directly report or
present a person’s own experiences
Secondary Sources report or describe
other people’s experiences or worldviews
Stage 2: Reading the Source Material
Reading, understanding, or making the
materials meaningful to you using HOTS
(inferring, predicting, generalizing,
concluding, assuming, etc.)
Modify, construct, or reconstruct ideas
based on a certain principle, theory,
pattern, method, or theme underlying
your research
Stage 3: Writing the Review
Do idea connection & organization by
paraphrasing or summarizing
Avoid dump/stringing method mere
description, transfer, or listing of
writer’s ideas that is devoid of or not
reflective of your thinking
Adopt good opening sentences of
articles and use transitional devices and
active verbs
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Citation
For reference section, please follow the 6
th
edition of
APA citation
Recognizing Sources
1. Acknowledgment the beginning portion of the
work that identifies individuals who have
contributed something for the production of the
paper
2. References or Bibliography a complete list of
all reading materials from where the borrowed
ideas came from
3. Citation or In-text Citation references within
the main body of the text, specifically in RRL
Styles of Citation
1. Integral Citation
Ex. According to Mojica (2017)…
2. Non-integral Citation
Ex. Research is a “careful, diligent, and
exhaustive investigation of a specific
matter, having as its aim the -
advancement of mankind’s knowledge”
(Manheim, 1977).
Patterns of Citation
1. Summary a shortened version of the original
text that is expressed in your own language;
2. Paraphrase explaining what the text means
using your own words;
3. Short Direct Quotation copying the exact
words of the author, not exceeding 40 words;
include the page number
4. Long Direct Quotation or Block Quotation, or
Extract copying the author’s exact words
numbering from 40 up to 100 words; limited to
8 lines; placed at the center with no indention
Reasons for Quoting (Ransome, 2013):
1. The idea is essential.
2. The idea is refutable or arguable.
3. The sentence is ambiguous or has multiple
meanings.
4. There’s a strong possibility that questions may
be raised about the citation.
5. It is an excellent idea that to make it part of your
paper will bring prestige and credibility to your
entire work.
Plagiarism
An act of quoting or copying the exact words of the
writer and passing the quoted words off as your own
words
Tense of Verbs for Reporting:
For APA, use present perfect tense.
Example: Present perfect tense
Mojica has explained…
RELATED LITERATURE
- min. of 10 BOOKS
- each topic must have 3 references
RELATED STUDIES
- min. of 3 studies

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies - the process of compiling, classifying, and evaluating what other researchers have written on a specific topic Related Literature • examines facts and principles from published materials or other resources that are related to the present study • defines/clarifies the following: • major variables (central idea of the entire literature) • sub-variables (help specify which particular aspect of the major variable is being referred to, • indicators (specific information that describes the sub-variables) Related Studies • includes theses or dissertations on research topics carrying the same variables • serves as a basis of the analysis of results because it allows the researcher to compare and contrast findings with those of past studies • indicate the name of the author, date and setting as in where and when the study was conducted, the title, and salient findings Styles or Approaches of RRL Traditional Review – the summary resembles that of an essay where series of united sentences presents the RRL results – the structure varies based on the subject and area of specialization Systematic Review – based on research questions Structure of RRL 1. Introduction – explain the organizational method of your literature review 2. Headings and Subheadings – indicate the right placement of supporting statements 3. Synthesis – concisely restate the main point; relate the gathered data to the central theme or problem - composed of both local and foreign RELATED LITERATURE and RELATED STUDIES Process of RRL Stage 1: Search for the Literature ✓ Look for sources of knowledge, data, or information ✓ Access sources manually (getting hold of printed form of the material) and electronically (having computer or online reading of the sources of knowledge) Types of Literature Sources: General references – direct you to the location of other sources Primary Sources – directly report or present a person’s own experiences Secondary Sources – report or describe other people’s experiences or worldviews Stage 2: Reading the Source Material ✓ Reading, understanding, or making the materials meaningful to you using HOTS (inferring, predicting, generalizing, concluding, assuming, etc.) ✓ Modify, construct, or reconstruct ideas based on a certain principle, theory, pattern, method, or theme underlying your research Stage 3: Writing the Review ✓ Do idea connection & organization by paraphrasing or summarizing ✓ Avoid dump/stringing method – mere description, transfer, or listing of writer’s ideas that is devoid of or not reflective of your thinking ✓ Adopt good opening sentences of articles and use transitional devices and active verbs Citation For reference section, please follow the 6th edition of APA citation Recognizing Sources 1. Acknowledgment – the beginning portion of the work that identifies individuals who have contributed something for the production of the paper 2. References or Bibliography – a complete list of all reading materials from where the borrowed ideas came from 3. Citation or In-text Citation – references within the main body of the text, specifically in RRL Styles of Citation 1. Integral Citation Ex. According to Mojica (2017)… 2. Non-integral Citation Ex. Research is a “careful, diligent, and exhaustive investigation of a specific matter, having as its aim the advancement of mankind’s knowledge” (Manheim, 1977). Patterns of Citation 1. Summary – a shortened version of the original text that is expressed in your own language; 2. Paraphrase – explaining what the text means using your own words; 3. Short Direct Quotation – copying the exact words of the author, not exceeding 40 words; include the page number 4. Long Direct Quotation or Block Quotation, or Extract – copying the author’s exact words numbering from 40 up to 100 words; limited to 8 lines; placed at the center with no indention Reasons for Quoting (Ransome, 2013): 1. The idea is essential. 2. The idea is refutable or arguable. 3. The sentence is ambiguous or has multiple meanings. 4. There’s a strong possibility that questions may be raised about the citation. 5. It is an excellent idea that to make it part of your paper will bring prestige and credibility to your entire work. Plagiarism An act of quoting or copying the exact words of the writer and passing the quoted words off as your own words Tense of Verbs for Reporting: For APA, use present perfect tense. Example: Present perfect tense – Mojica has explained… RELATED LITERATURE - min. of 10 BOOKS - each topic must have 3 references RELATED STUDIES - min. of 3 studies Name: Description: ...
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