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Literature
*literature is humanity itself
*literature became the key connection to the
world
-helps recognize nature of humanity
in different times and places
*Matthew Arnold
-English poet
-”literature as a criticism of life”
>connection with literature
provides
an objective base for understanding
of life
*The American Heritage Dictionary of the
English Language
-”literature must be an analysis of
experience and a synthesis of the
findings into a unity”
*Oscar Wilde
-Irish author, playwright, and poet
-”literature always anticipates life. It
does not copy it, but moulds it to its
purpose.”
*Henry Van Dyke
-American author, educator, and
clergyman
-says that literature consists of
writings which interpret the
meanings of nature and life, in words
of charm and power, in artistic forms
and of permanent interest
*it is not enough to write about life
-a writer has to render it
imaginatively
*literary work
-is subjected to certain literary
standards to be considered
literature in the true sense of the
word
-must be aesthetically satisfying,
intellectually stimulating, and
spiritually lifting
*a collective body of literary productions
may be classified into two major divisions
-poetry and prose
-however, one other type has been
included arbitrarily among these
divisions (drama)
Poetry
*literature that evokes a concentrated
imaginative awareness of experience
*specific emotional response through
language chosen and arranged for its
meaning, sound, and rhythm
TYPES OF POETRY
Lyric
*consists of poems that deal with emotions
or feelings
*correlates to William Wordsworth’s
definition of poetry as “the spontaneous flow
of emotion”
*subjective and personal
*lyric types that abound with figures of
speech
*ex. sonnet, song, elegy, ode, and simple
lyric
Narrative
*also referred to as a story-telling verse
*poems that narrate stories
*ex. ballad, metrical tale, metrical romance,
and epic
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Dramatic
*poems in which everything is conveyed
through the words of a single speaker
-reveals background circumstances
and conflicts
-provides insight into his or her own
character as well as others
*two kinds: dramatic monologue and
soliloquy
*dramatic monologue
-speaker converses with a silent
listener who is present during
his/her moment of crisis
*soliloquy
-speaker recites in long verse
his/her
private thoughts and feelings to no
one in particular
-he/she directs this to the audience
Prose Poetry
*has all the characteristics of poetry
-vivid imagery, poetic meter,
heightened emotion, and language
play
-except that it is written in
sentences
Prose
*uses a natural form of expression
*prose writing does not adhere to the rules
of rhyme, rhythm, and meter
-employs a language characterized
by its close semblance to the
patterns of everyday speech
*difference between prose and poetry is one
of form
*subdivided into two major types: fiction and
nonfiction
FICTION
*form of narrative that tells about imaginary
characters and events
*ex. short stories, novels
NONFICTION
*prose writing is based on real people and
events, so it is under nonfiction
*ex. essay, oration, biography,
autobiography, memoir, letters, and
epistles
Drama
*composition in verse or prose intended to
portray life of character to tell a story
-usually involving conflicts and
emotions through action and
dialogue
-typically designs for theatrical
performance
*develops primarily by means of dialogue,
lines are spoken by the characters
*plot and drama unfold on stage as
characters interact with one another
*birthplace is in Greece
*drama may be classified as tragedy and
comedy
-tragedy: serious subjects and
involves people of significance
>reveals nobility of the human
condition
-comedy: treats themes and
characters with humor and typically
has a happy ending
>comedy portrays humans as selfish,
hypocritical, vain, weak, and
irrational
*playwrights use basic styles in their
approach to and presentation of the subject
matter of plays
-realistic/illusionistic/representational style
-nonrealistic/non illusionistic/presentational
style
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*today, drama is used to refer to plays of all
kinds!

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Literature *literature is humanity itself *literature became the key connection to the world -helps recognize nature of humanity in different times and places *Matthew Arnold -English poet -”literature as a criticism of life” >connection with literature provides an objective base for understanding of life *The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language -”literature must be an analysis of experience and a synthesis of the findings into a unity” *Oscar Wilde -Irish author, playwright, and poet -”literature always anticipates life. It does not copy it, but moulds it to its purpose.” *literary work -is subjected to certain literary standards to be considered literature in the true sense of the word -must be aesthetically satisfying, intellectually stimulating, and spiritually lifting *a collective body of literary productions may be classified into two major divisions -poetry and prose -however, one other type has been included arbitrarily among these divisions (drama) Poetry *literature that evokes a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience *specific emotional response through language chosen and arranged for its meaning, sound, and rhythm TYPES OF POETRY Lyric *Henry Van Dyke -American author, educator, and clergyman -says that literature consists of writings which interpret the meanings of nature and life, in words of charm and power, in artistic forms and of permanent interest *consists of poems that deal with emotions or feelings *correlates to William Wordsworth’s definition of poetry as “the spontaneous flow of emotion” *subjective and personal *lyric types that abound with figures of speech *ex. sonnet, song, elegy, ode, and simple lyric *it is not enough to write about life -a writer has to render it imaginatively Narrative *also referred to as a story-telling verse *poems that narrate stories *ex. ballad, metrical tale, metrical romance, and epic Dramatic *poems in which everything is conveyed through the words of a single speaker -reveals background circumstances and conflicts -provides insight into his or her own character as well as others *two kinds: dramatic monologue and soliloquy *dramatic monologue -speaker converses with a silent listener who is present during his/her moment of crisis *soliloquy -speaker recites in long verse his/her private thoughts and feelings to no one in particular -he/she directs this to the audience Prose Poetry *has all the characteristics of poetry -vivid imagery, poetic meter, heightened emotion, and language play -except that it is written in sentences Prose *uses a natural form of expression *prose writing does not adhere to the rules of rhyme, rhythm, and meter -employs a language characterized by its close semblance to the patterns of everyday speech *difference between prose and poetry is one of form *subdivided into two major types: fiction and nonfiction FICTION *form of narrative that tells about imaginary characters and events *ex. short stories, novels NONFICTION *prose writing is based on real people and events, so it is under nonfiction *ex. essay, oration, biography, autobiography, memoir, letters, and epistles Drama *composition in verse or prose intended to portray life of character to tell a story -usually involving conflicts and emotions through action and dialogue -typically designs for theatrical performance *develops primarily by means of dialogue, lines are spoken by the characters *plot and drama unfold on stage as characters interact with one another *birthplace is in Greece *drama may be classified as tragedy and comedy -tragedy: serious subjects and involves people of significance >reveals nobility of the human condition -comedy: treats themes and characters with humor and typically has a happy ending >comedy portrays humans as selfish, hypocritical, vain, weak, and irrational *playwrights use basic styles in their approach to and presentation of the subject matter of plays -realistic/illusionistic/representational style -nonrealistic/non illusionistic/presentational style *today, drama is used to refer to plays of all kinds! Name: Description: ...
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