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Concept Paper
is an in-depth analysis of any idea,
situation, or practice.
It can be on anything you find significant:
it can be a feeling, a cultural practice, a
belief, a situation, etc.
It examines the ‘what-ness or nature of
something. To accomplish this, you need
to explain in full a simple definition of
the term.
The Types
1. EXTENDED DEFINITION
Its ultimate purpose is to explain
the concept, idea, theory, and
the like in the clearest manner.
If the concept is unknown, give a
concrete example of it;
otherwise, provide new and
fresh ideas.
Rhetorical Techniques
These devices are used to make the
concept easier to understand.
o Comparison- Compare the
concept with something that is
known to many.
o Details- Describe the concept’s
characteristics and features.
o Historical Background- Explicate
the concept’s historical
development
o Analysis- Provide any
implications or components that
may help the concept be
realized
Style of Defining
1. Formal/Technical Definition- It is used in
academic paper; following the class to
distinguishing characteristic format.
Eg. Sole Proprietorship is a business that is
owned and operated by one person.
2. Popular/Informal Definition - Highly based on
subdivided subgroups which belong to the same
category.
Eg. Family is a group of people who are related
by blood. One subgroup is the parents and the
other is the children.
Initial outline for Project Proposal
When you want to prepare a research
study, start off with defining your
concept prior to writing a full-blown
research.
It also tries to convince the readers to
support your plan for funding
Parts of Project Proposal
1. Project Title- provides the general idea of the
project proposed.
2. Introduction- contains the rationale of the
study
3. Purpose- creates the general goal and
objectives of the study
4. Project Description- brief enumeration and
elucidation of the study.
5. Objectives- contains the specific aims for the
study.
6. Project Design- details the process of the
conduct of the study.
7. Project Needs- the necessities of the study.
8. Timetable- action to be taken in a time span.
9. Stakeholders- the people involved in the
process of project.
10. Evaluation- the presentation of how to judge
the effectiveness of the project.
Position Paper
It is a known as argumentative paper or
manifesto.
An essay that presents a stand on
particular issue.
Manner of Argumentation
Present evidences
Present counter-arguments
Use of appeals
Present Evidences
Highlighting the rational information to
support the claim.
Present Counter-claims
Emphasizing the flaws of the opposing
argument.
Use of Appeals
Using persuasion techniques
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Elements
Issue
Thesis
Reasons
Support
Counter-argument
Element 1: Issue
It is known as controversy.
Any claim that subject for debate.
Element 2: Thesis
It is known as claim.
A statement that presents your stand.
Element 3: Reasons
It is known as arguments.
These are your criteria in making a
stand.
Element 4: Support
It refers to the specific reasons to
substantiate your claim
It uses facts, comparisons, examples,
and opinions.
Element 5: Counter-argument
Refuting the opposing argument by
pointing out the flaws.
Writing Process
1. Choose an issue.
2. Collect evidences
2. to support the issue.
3. Organize your
4. presentation.
Step 1
Select the most timely and relevant
issue.
Use observation, experiences, media,
etc. as a basis.
Step 2
Answers the basic reporter's questions.
Use types of appeals.
Types of Appeals
Logical Appeal
Emotional Appeal
Logical Appeals
Substantiating your issue with sound
and reasonable argument.
Types of Argument
1. Transitivity
o Three terms presented as either
premises (basis for
argumentation) and conclusion.
o Checking
1. Must have three
terms only.
2. The middle term must
be used consistently.
3. All premises must be
correct.
Example
All Mark are
gays. All gays
are smart.
Therefore,
Mark is smart.
Incompatibility
o If A is correct then B is incorrect
or vice versa they are
incompatible.
o Checking
1. Locate the negative
idea and its opposite.
Example
President X is
pro-education,
but refuses to
lessen the
tuition fee of
the school.
Entailment
o If A is correct then B is correct-
they are compatible.
o Checking
1. Check the accuracy of
both statement
Example: I have a blue
pen, thus I have a pen.
Reciprocity
o If the situation or individual be
classified in the SAME
CATEGORY, it must be taken as
one.
o Checking
1. Consider the category
if they are the same.
Example: You should do
unto others what others
do unto you.
Example Salome is good
in Science. She can solve
Cosines mentally.
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Mario, her friend, is
good in writing. He can
write good quality
essay.
Comparison
o Similarities in situation will have
similar outcome.
o Checking
1. Are the two entities
belong to the same
category?
2. Are there sufficient
similarities?
Example If Philippines
will declare war against
China, it will be start of
World War III. The same
thing happened in Japan
VS. USA.
Generalization
o One is equivalent to an entire
population.
o Checking
1. Is there a
reperesentative of the
population?
2. Does the
representative embody
the population?
Example Manny
Pacquiao is a proof that
the Philippines is a
nation of good boxers.
Examples
o A group is equivalent to an
entire population.
o Checking
1. Is there sufficient
representatives of the
population?
Example All ABM
students are good in
accounting.
Cause
o If A is the cause, then, B is the
effect of A.
o Checking
1. Is the relationship of
A and B causal?
Emotional Appeals
o Focus on the pathos of the readers as a
way of persuasion.
Types of Appeals
Bandwagon
o Conformity to the majority.
False Authority
o Use of testimonies in making the brand
appeal to Juans.
Common Folk
o Pointing out that person is no different
from ordinary people.
Name Calling
o Branding the opposing side as negative
as it can get.
Association
o Linking a concept to another concept in
making the brand appeal believable.
Field and Technical Report
A written report is a clear, objective, and orderly
presentation if the details of a research
investigation or an assigned activity.
Writing Styles for Report
Concise Writing
o How was the text presented?
o Was the text direct to the point?
o The text is efficiently writing.
Clear Writing
o Is the text easily understood?
o The text transcends the message
o in the clearest possible.
Objective Writing
o Was the text biased?
o What was the tone of the author?
o The text is neutral and factual in neutral.
Non-discriminatory Writing
o Was the author present personal
preference for gender, age, disability?
o The text is free from direct or indirect
derogatory remarks.
Parts of the Report
o There is no definite format for the
report, it usually depends on how the
reporter presents data needed, but it is
considered to be a good report if it
contains the following sections:
Part 1. Preliminary Pages
a. Title Page- contains the title of the report,
names of the reporters, and date of submission.
b. Abstract/Executive Summary- presents the
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general summary of the report written in 250
words only.
c. Table of Content- refers to the contents of the
report and its pagination.
Part 2. Report Proper
a. Introduction- contains the background of the
problem and the rationale of the study.
b. Procedures- the process of how the study will
be done.
c. Results & Discussion- presents the pertinent
findings in the study.
d. Conclusion- creates relevant key implications
from the results of the study.
e. Appendix- includes all attachments used in
the study.
f. References- the list of online, journals, theses,
etc. used in the study
Laboratory Report
-It is objective and systematic documentation of
what has taken place in a laboratory experiment.
Content Overview
o Title
o Abstract
o Introduction
o Procedure
o Results and Discussion
o References
Title
o The name of the experiment and its
proponent/s.
o Date of submission.
o To whom it will be submitted.
Abstract
o It contains the executive summary of the
experiment.
o It us usually written in 250 words or less.
o Tense of the Verb: Past Tense
Introduction
o The leading statement in achieving the
goal of the experiment.
o It usually contains the objectives,
rationale, relevant theories, hypothesis.
o By giving background, define the terms
to help nonexperts understand your
work.
o Tense of the Verb: Present Tense
Hypothesis Statement
o It can be presented conditionally or
declaratively:
o Conditional: “If (condition),
then (outcome) Eg. If the
temperature changes, the
value of the equilibrium
constant will also change.
o Declarative: There is no
significant difference
between variable A and
variable B.
Procedures
o The steps to be undertaken in the
experiment
o Materials and instruments used in the
experiment including the
measurements, settings, and models.
o Actions done in the experiment.
o Data recording and treatment
o Illustrations and pictures are included in
the report.
o It can be written in narrative paragraphs
or in numbered statements.
o Tense of the Verb: Past Tense
Results
o Presentation of the data usually in the
form of tables or graphs.
o Presentation of highlights if the data: a.
trends.
o b. highest/lowest figures
o c. unexpected findings Tense of
the Verb: Past & Present Tense
o Tense of the Verb: Past Tense
o It is used to describe the results
obtained in the experiment.
o Eg. Overall, there was a significant
reduction in the blood pressure of more
than 60% of the patients.
o Tense of the Verb: Present Tense
o Present tense should be used when
presenting tables, figures, and graphs.
o Eg. Table 4 shows the blood pressure
levels of patients before and after
administration of the recommended
dose of the drug.
Discussion
o The interpretation (explanation) of the
result.
o In case of unexpected results, an
explication of the probable cause of this
unexpectedness.
o The recommendations are also
presented here.
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o Tense of the Verb: Past, Present, &
Future Tenses
o Tense of the Verb: Past Tense
o It is used when presenting a summary of
the findings.
o Eg. Sixty-three percent of children
demonstrated an elevated level of at
least one risk factor.
o Tense of the Verb: Present Tense
o When interpreting the results or
describing the significance of the
findings, the present tense should be
used.
o Eg. This means that children with obesity
are at an increased risk of cardiovascular
diseases.
o Tense of the Verb: Future Tense
o When presenting recommendations for
further research or providing future
direction, future tense must be used.
o Eg. Based on the results of the study, the
researchers will recommend the
following future studies…
References
o List of all the in text and in reference
citations in the bibliography of the
report.
o In text Citation
o Eg. Columbus (2017) posited that the
earth is flat.
o In reference Citation
o Eg. The earth is flat (Columbus, 2017).
o The APA 7th Edition should be used.
Graphic Presentation
Tables
o It represents the data in columns and
rows.
o Stub represents the names of the data.
o Field is details of the data.
o The title of the table should be in NOUN
PHRASE.
Bar Graph
o It is a graphical display of data using bars
of different heights.
o The horizontal and vertical data should
match.
o The title of the graph should be in NOUN
PHRASE.
Pie Chart
o It is a special chart that uses "pie slices"
to show relative sizes of data.
o The title of the table should be in NOUN
PHRASE.
Narrative Presentation
Voices of Verb
o Active Voice
o Passive Voice
Voice of the Verb
o shows whether the subject is performing
or receiving the action
Active Voice
-the subject performs the action
expressed in the verb.
1. Garry drives the car to the campus.
2. The figure 2 shows the favorite types of movie.
Passive Voice
-the subject receives the action
expressed in the verb
1. The car was driven by Gary to the campus.
2. The favorite types of movie is shown in figure
3. The new house was decorated by Marlena.The
data was presented by Michael.
Highlighting Statements
o In presenting the result, note that
significant data should be presented
well (depending on SOP/ objective).
o Present trend, unexpected findings, and
lowest/highest figures.
Highlighting Results
o The majority (90%) of the respondents
said
o Approximately a portion of the
participants believed
o As can be seen in Table 2, the variable B
is significantly different from variable C.
Highlighting Trends
o There has been a gradual decrease in…
o There is a sharp drop…
o There is a steady increase in the result
of...
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Unformatted Attachment Preview

Concept Paper • • • Initial outline for Project Proposal is an in-depth analysis of any idea, situation, or practice. It can be on anything you find significant: it can be a feeling, a cultural practice, a belief, a situation, etc. It examines the ‘what-ness’ or nature of something. To accomplish this, you need to explain in full a simple definition of the term. The Types 1. EXTENDED DEFINITION Its ultimate purpose is to explain the concept, idea, theory, and the like in the clearest manner. If the concept is unknown, give a concrete example of it; otherwise, provide new and fresh ideas. Rhetorical Techniques These devices are used to make the concept easier to understand. o Comparison- Compare the concept with something that is known to many. o Details- Describe the concept’s characteristics and features. o Historical Background- Explicate the concept’s historical development o AnalysisProvide any implications or components that may help the concept be realized Style of Defining 1. Formal/Technical Definition- It is used in academic paper; following the class to distinguishing characteristic format. Eg. Sole Proprietorship is a business that is owned and operated by one person. 2. Popular/Informal Definition - Highly based on subdivided subgroups which belong to the same category. Eg. Family is a group of people who are related by blood. One subgroup is the parents and the other is the children. When you want to prepare a research study, start off with defining your concept prior to writing a full-blown research. It also tries to convince the readers to support your plan for funding Parts of Project Proposal 1. Project Title- provides the general idea of the project proposed. 2. Introduction- contains the rationale of the study 3. Purpose- creates the general goal and objectives of the study 4. Project Description- brief enumeration and elucidation of the study. 5. Objectives- contains the specific aims for the study. 6. Project Design- details the process of the conduct of the study. 7. Project Needs- the necessities of the study. 8. Timetable- action to be taken in a time span. 9. Stakeholders- the people involved in the process of project. 10. Evaluation- the presentation of how to judge the effectiveness of the project. Position Paper It is a known as argumentative paper or manifesto. An essay that presents a stand on particular issue. Manner of Argumentation Present evidences Present counter-arguments Use of appeals Present Evidences Highlighting the rational information to support the claim. Present Counter-claims Emphasizing the flaws of the opposing argument. Use of Appeals Using persuasion techniques Elements Issue Thesis Reasons Support Counter-argument Element 1: Issue • • It is known as controversy. Any claim that subject for debate. Element 2: Thesis • • It is known as claim. A statement that presents your stand. Element 3: Reasons • • It is known as arguments. These are your criteria in making a stand. Element 4: Support • • It refers to the specific reasons to substantiate your claim It uses facts, comparisons, examples, and opinions. Element 5: Counter-argument • Refuting the opposing argument by pointing out the flaws. Writing Process 1. 2. 2. 3. 4. Choose an issue. Collect evidences to support the issue. Organize your presentation. Step 1 • • Select the most timely and relevant issue. Use observation, experiences, media, etc. as a basis. Step 2 • • Answers the basic reporter's questions. Use types of appeals. Types of Appeals • • Logical Appeal Emotional Appeal Logical Appeals • Substantiating your issue with sound and reasonable argument. Types of Argument 1. Transitivity o Three terms presented as either premises (basis for argumentation) and conclusion. o Checking ▪ 1. Must have three terms only. ▪ 2. The middle term must be used consistently. ▪ 3. All premises must be correct. ▪ Example • All Mark are gays. All gays are smart. Therefore, Mark is smart. • Incompatibility o If A is correct then B is incorrect or vice versa they are incompatible. o Checking ▪ 1. Locate the negative idea and its opposite. ▪ Example • President X is pro-education, but refuses to lessen the tuition fee of the school. • Entailment o If A is correct then B is correctthey are compatible. o Checking ▪ 1. Check the accuracy of both statement ▪ Example: I have a blue pen, thus I have a pen. • Reciprocity o If the situation or individual be classified in the SAME CATEGORY, it must be taken as one. o Checking ▪ 1. Consider the category if they are the same. ▪ Example: You should do unto others what others do unto you. ▪ Example Salome is good in Science. She can solve Cosines mentally. Mario, her friend, is good in writing. He can write good quality essay. • • • • Comparison o Similarities in situation will have similar outcome. o Checking ▪ 1. Are the two entities belong to the same category? ▪ 2. Are there sufficient similarities? ▪ Example If Philippines will declare war against China, it will be start of World War III. The same thing happened in Japan VS. USA. Generalization o One is equivalent to an entire population. o Checking ▪ 1. Is there a reperesentative of the population? ▪ 2. Does the representative embody the population? ▪ Example Manny Pacquiao is a proof that the Philippines is a nation of good boxers. Examples o A group is equivalent to an entire population. o Checking ▪ 1. Is there sufficient representatives of the population? ▪ Example All ABM students are good in accounting. Cause o If A is the cause, then, B is the effect of A. o Checking ▪ 1. Is the relationship of A and B causal? Emotional Appeals o Focus on the pathos of the readers as a way of persuasion. Types of Appeals Bandwagon o Conformity to the majority. False Authority o Use of testimonies in making the brand appeal to Juans. Common Folk o Pointing out that person is no different from ordinary people. Name Calling o Branding the opposing side as negative as it can get. Association o Linking a concept to another concept in making the brand appeal believable. Field and Technical Report A written report is a clear, objective, and orderly presentation if the details of a research investigation or an assigned activity. Writing Styles for Report Concise Writing o o o How was the text presented? Was the text direct to the point? The text is efficiently writing. Clear Writing o o o Is the text easily understood? The text transcends the message in the clearest possible. Objective Writing o o o Was the text biased? What was the tone of the author? The text is neutral and factual in neutral. Non-discriminatory Writing o o Was the author present personal preference for gender, age, disability? The text is free from direct or indirect derogatory remarks. Parts of the Report o There is no definite format for the report, it usually depends on how the reporter presents data needed, but it is considered to be a good report if it contains the following sections: Part 1. Preliminary Pages a. Title Page- contains the title of the report, names of the reporters, and date of submission. b. Abstract/Executive Summary- presents the general summary of the report written in 250 words only. Hypothesis Statement o c. Table of Content- refers to the contents of the report and its pagination. Part 2. Report Proper a. Introduction- contains the background of the problem and the rationale of the study. b. Procedures- the process of how the study will be done. c. Results & Discussion- presents the pertinent findings in the study. It can be presented conditionally or declaratively: o Conditional: “If (condition), then (outcome)” Eg. If the temperature changes, the value of the equilibrium constant will also change. o Declarative: There is no significant difference between variable A and variable B. Procedures d. Conclusion- creates relevant key implications from the results of the study. o e. Appendix- includes all attachments used in the study. o f. References- the list of online, journals, theses, etc. used in the study o o o Laboratory Report o -It is objective and systematic documentation of what has taken place in a laboratory experiment. o The steps to be undertaken in the experiment Materials and instruments used in the experiment including the measurements, settings, and models. Actions done in the experiment. Data recording and treatment Illustrations and pictures are included in the report. It can be written in narrative paragraphs or in numbered statements. Tense of the Verb: Past Tense Results Content Overview o o o o o o Title Abstract Introduction Procedure Results and Discussion References o The name of the experiment and its proponent/s. Date of submission. To whom it will be submitted. o Title o o o Abstract o o o It contains the executive summary of the experiment. It us usually written in 250 words or less. Tense of the Verb: Past Tense Introduction o o o o o The leading statement in achieving the goal of the experiment. It usually contains the objectives, rationale, relevant theories, hypothesis. By giving background, define the terms to help nonexperts understand your work. Tense of the Verb: Present Tense o o o o o Presentation of the data usually in the form of tables or graphs. Presentation of highlights if the data: a. trends. o b. highest/lowest figures o c. unexpected findings Tense of the Verb: Past & Present Tense Tense of the Verb: Past Tense It is used to describe the results obtained in the experiment. Eg. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the blood pressure of more than 60% of the patients. Tense of the Verb: Present Tense Present tense should be used when presenting tables, figures, and graphs. Eg. Table 4 shows the blood pressure levels of patients before and after administration of the recommended dose of the drug. Discussion o o o The interpretation (explanation) of the result. In case of unexpected results, an explication of the probable cause of this unexpectedness. The recommendations are also presented here. o o o o o o o o o o Tense of the Verb: Past, Present, & Future Tenses Tense of the Verb: Past Tense It is used when presenting a summary of the findings. Eg. Sixty-three percent of children demonstrated an elevated level of at least one risk factor. Tense of the Verb: Present Tense When interpreting the results or describing the significance of the findings, the present tense should be used. Eg. This means that children with obesity are at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Tense of the Verb: Future Tense When presenting recommendations for further research or providing future direction, future tense must be used. Eg. Based on the results of the study, the researchers will recommend the following future studies… References o o o o o o List of all the in text and in reference citations in the bibliography of the report. In text Citation Eg. Columbus (2017) posited that the earth is flat. In reference Citation Eg. The earth is flat (Columbus, 2017). The APA 7th Edition should be used. Narrative Presentation Voices of Verb o o Active Voice Passive Voice Voice of the Verb o shows whether the subject is performing or receiving the action Active Voice -the subject performs expressed in the verb. the action 1. Garry drives the car to the campus. 2. The figure 2 shows the favorite types of movie. Passive Voice -the subject expressed in the verb receives the action 1. The car was driven by Gary to the campus. 2. The favorite types of movie is shown in figure 3. The new house was decorated by Marlena.The data was presented by Michael. Highlighting Statements o o In presenting the result, note that significant data should be presented well (depending on SOP/ objective). Present trend, unexpected findings, and lowest/highest figures. Highlighting Results Graphic Presentation Tables o o o o o It represents the data in columns and rows. Stub represents the names of the data. Field is details of the data. The title of the table should be in NOUN PHRASE. Bar Graph o o o It is a graphical display of data using bars of different heights. The horizontal and vertical data should match. The title of the graph should be in NOUN PHRASE. Pie Chart o o o It is a special chart that uses "pie slices" to show relative sizes of data. The title of the table should be in NOUN PHRASE. o The majority (90%) of the respondents said… Approximately a portion of the participants believed… As can be seen in Table 2, the variable B is significantly different from variable C. Highlighting Trends o o o There has been a gradual decrease in… There is a sharp drop… There is a steady increase in the result of... Name: Description: ...
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