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EAST AFRICAN INSTITUTES FOR MANAGEMENT
SCIENCE
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING HANDOUT
BY
MR EBONG MICHAEL
TEL:0392003738,0752305033, 0923700294
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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING ................................................................. 4
PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING ............................................................................. 4
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING ......................................................... 5
TRADITIONAL COUNSELLING ........................................................................................................... 6
FACTORS AFFECTING GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING ............................................................ 6
SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM AFFECTING GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING ..................... 7
THE PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE ARE: ............................................................................................. 8
THEORETICAL APPEROCAH TO COUNSELLING ......................................................................... 9
GOALS OF COUNSELING IN PSYCHOANALYSIS ......................................................................... 10
CONTRIBUTION OF PSYCHOANALYSIS IN COUNSELING ....................................................... 11
COGNITIVE THEORY : ......................................................................................................................... 12
THE SIX NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR CONSTRUCTIVE PERSONALITY CHANGE ...... 13
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS. .............................................................................. 15
INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ECLECTIC PSYCHOLOGY .................................................. 15
PSCHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING ............................................... 16
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICES .................................................................................... 19
AREAS OF COUNSELLING ............................................................................................................................ 23
Abuse ...................................................................................................................................................... 23
Depression .............................................................................................................................................. 25
Eating Disorders.................................................................................................................................... 26
Low self-esteem and confidence ........................................................................................................... 26
Relationships ......................................................................................................................................... 27
Stress ...................................................................................................................................................... 28
Trauma .................................................................................................................................................. 28
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) .............................................................................................. 29
KEY COUNSELLING AGENTS ............................................................................................................ 30
BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COUNSELLING ........................................................................................... 32
KEY QUALITIES IN COUSELLING RELATIONSHIP .................................................................... 38
BASIC COUNSELLING SKILLS ....................................................................................................................... 40
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What skills does a counsellor need? ....................................................................................................... 40
1. Communication skills ................................................................................................................... 40
2. Interpersonal skills ........................................................................................................................ 40
3. Understanding of ethics ................................................................................................................ 40
4. Patience .......................................................................................................................................... 41
5. Compassion .................................................................................................................................... 41
6. Emotional stability ........................................................................................................................ 41
7. Knowledge of laws and regulations ............................................................................................. 41
8. Open-mindedness .......................................................................................................................... 41
9. Trustworthiness ............................................................................................................................. 41
10. Research skills ............................................................................................................................. 42
11. Problem-solving skills ................................................................................................................. 42
12. Observational skills ..................................................................................................................... 42
13. Reasoning skills ........................................................................................................................... 42
14. Computer skills ........................................................................................................................... 42
COUNSELLING TECHNIQUES ........................................................................................................... 43
VERBAL CONSIDERATION ................................................................................................................. 46
NON VERBAL CONSIDERATION ....................................................................................................... 47
READING LIST ......................................................................................................................................... 48