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OBESITY
Conditions and Interventions
Obesity:
Obesity is an unhealthy accumulation of body fat. In technical terms, obesity is a
chronic disease involving pathophysiological processes that result in an excess
accumulation of adipose tissue, which increases morbidity and mortality.
Adipocytes (fat cells) are not passive deposits of excess fat. They comprise an active
endocrine organ that secretes hormone-like factors associated with chronic low grade
inflammation and insulin resistance.
Prevalence of Obesity and Over-weight:
The one-third of U.S adults are obese, and another third are overweight. In 1980’s,
obesity has developed as an epidemic and throughout the world. In 1990, the rate of
obesity across United States has range from less than 10 to 15 percent. All states had
obesity rates over 20 percent, and 19 exceeded 10 exceeded by 2013.
Obesity and overweight have increased in all segments of the population, but vary
across age, gender, race ethnicity, and income categories and geographic region.
Although some data suggest that the overall rate of overweight and obesity may be
leveling off, the rates of severe obesity (BMI > 40) are expected to double by 2030 to
10 percent of the population, indicating a shift to higher weight and greater adiposity.
Etiology of Obesity:
Overweight and obesity are not simply a matter of intake exceeding output. They are
complex and chronic conditions, stemming from numerous interacting physiological,
individual, environmental, and genetic factors. These factors affect the type,
frequency, and quantity of food and beverages consumed and the body’s metabolic
processes.
Normal Body-weight:
Normally body weight is determined by a neuroendocrine regulatory system that tends
to maintain weight at a relatively stable “set point” through homeostatic feedback
processes. Leptin, insulin, gut hormones, and levels of other metabolic products signal
anabolic or catabolic responses, adjustment of resting energy expenditure, appetite,
and food intake.
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