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SLEEP STUDY GUIDE
1. What four physiological measures are used to classify different sleep states?
Electroencephalography (EEG), eye movements, muscle tension, and heart rate
2. What is EEG activity like in an awake person?
Very fast frequency and low amplitude waves
3. What are the 4 sleep stages and what physiological events characterize each
one?
Stage 1- irregular frequencies and low amplitude waves. Vertex spikes occur (sharp
positive spikes then right after a sharp negative spike down)
stage 2- amplitude increases and frequency slows. Sleep spindles occur (short 1-3
sec bursts of high frequency, look scribbled together) and K complexes occur (sharp
negative spikes down)
stage 3 AKA slow-wave sleep (SWS)- large amplitude and slow frequency waves.
Deepest stage of sleep/ hardest to wake up from.
rapid eye movement (REM)- low amplitude and mixed frequency waves. Most
similar to being awake. Muscles completely relaxed.
4. During which sleep stage does most dreaming occur, and what is the difference
between dream reports from REM and dream reports from other stages?
Most dreams occur in REM stage. Nature of dreams differ….
5. How does Freud’s psychoanalytic theory explain why we dream?
Idea that dreams reflect our unconscious desires, thoughts, and motivations.
Dreaming allows id part of mind to run wild
6. How does the activation-synthesis hypothesis explain why we dream and how
does this relate to creativity?
Random patterns of activity in cortex occur while we’re asleep so bc the frontal
cortex doesn’t like the random activations, it creates a storyline. Creative bc mind is
connecting random thoughts in whatever sequence.
7. What is a typical night of sleep like for a young adult?
7-8 hours of sleep, 20% REM and 20% SWS.
8. What is a sleep cycle, how long does a sleep cycle last, and what is different
between cycles at the beginning vs. cycles at the end of the night?
The oscillation between SWS and REM sleep, different depending on a persons age
typically. Ranges from 70-100 minutes. Young adults are in more SWS in beginning
of sleep, by end of night they’re in more REM than SWS.
9. When do infants develop a sleep/wake cycle, and what are two ways in which the
sleep of infants differs from the sleep of adults?
Develop sleep cycle at 4 months. Differ bc they sleep way more (16 hrs a day) and
shorter sleep cycles. (50-60 mins)
10. How does sleep in older adults differ from sleep in young adults, and which sleep
stage is most affected?
Sleep 5-6 hrs a day. Have a less SWS, by age 60 only 10% of sleep is in SWS, and
by age 90 theres no SWS at all.
11. How does sleep in aquatic mammals and birds differ from human sleep?
Differs bc they don’t have REM sleep. This is bc they have to go to surface of water
to breathe so cant get into deep sleep where muscles must be relaxed. Also only 1
brain hemisphere goes into stage 3 at a time during sleep cycle

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SLEEP STUDY GUIDE 1. What four physiological measures are used to classify different sleep states? Electroencephalography (EEG), eye movements, muscle tension, and heart rate 2. What is EEG activity like in an awake person? Very fast frequency and low amplitude waves 3. What are the 4 sleep stages and what physiological events characterize each one? Stage 1- irregular frequencies and low amplitude waves. Vertex spikes occur (sharp positive spikes then right after a sharp negative spike down) stage 2- amplitude increases and frequency slows. Sleep spindles occur (short 1-3 sec bursts of high fr ...
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