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Catalyst pediatric pre training reading childhood obesity review1

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Childhood Obesity Causes, Consequences, and Management Muskaan Gurnani, a BHSc , Catherine Birken, b MD, FRCPC , Jill Hamilton, MD, FRCPC a, * KEYWORDS  Childhood  Adolescent  Obesity  Cardiometabolic risk  Lifestyle interventions  Prevention KEY POINTS  Routine body mass index (BMI) screening of children on age-appropriate growth charts is necessary to identify those requiring further assessment.  Central adiposity is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), dyslipidemia, hypertension, sleep-disordered breathing, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).  Family-centered behavior therapy should focus on small goals to improve nutritional intake and physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors.  Studies demonstrate modest weight loss of 5% to 10% with improvement in cardiometabolic parameters.  Psychosocial stressors and comorbidities may make behavior change difficult; empathetic counseling using techniques such as motivational interviewing may be useful adjuncts to therapy.  Prevention strategies must be implemented across various domains, as children are influenced in the context of their families, cultures, communities, and on a broader population level. BACKGROUND Obesity prevalence has increased during the past decades in children and adolescents, leading to a significant current and future health burden.1 In North America, approximately one-third of children are either overweight or obese.2,3 A ...
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