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04 cache memory

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Computer Architecture and Organization Lecture 4 Muhammad Zeeshan Haider Ali Lecturer CS/IT, ISP Multan William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 8th Edition Chapter 4 Cache Memory Characteristics of Memory Systems • • • • • • • • Location Capacity Unit of transfer Access method Performance Physical type Physical characteristics Organisation Location • Internal (e.g. processor registers, main memory, cache) • External (e.g. optical disks, magnetic disks, tapes) Capacity • Word size —The natural unit of organiation • Number of words —or Bytes Unit of Transfer • Internal —Usually governed by data bus width • External —Usually a block which is much larger than a word • Addressable unit —Smallest location which can be uniquely addressed —Word internally —Cluster on M$ disks Access Methods (1) • Sequential —Start at the beginning and read through in order —Access time depends on location of data and previous location —e.g. tape • Direct —Individual blocks have unique address —Access is by jumping to vicinity plus sequential search —Access time depends on location and previous location —e.g. disk Access Methods (2) • Random —Individual addresses identify locations exactly —Access time is independent of location or previous access —e.g. RAM • Associative —Data is located by a comparison with contents of a portion of the store —Access time is indepen ...
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