Showing Page:
1/5
THE CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS
(AND THE REMAKING OF WORLD ORDER)
Book Review by Shabana Basheer
The book Clash of Civilization and The Remaking of World Order is written by the
well known American political scientist Samuel Huntington. The Clash of
Civilization by author was Frist time presented in 1993 in shape of a article in
foreign affairs forum and later the writer presented his this iconic work in shape of
the book. This book which consists of five parts and 540 pages got worldwide
attention and considered as one of the most debated and read book.
In this book the main assumption which Huntington put forwarded is that the world
politics is shifting into a new phase. As pointed out by the Francis Fokoyama that it
will be the end of history is just a wrong assumption because in the coming years the
main source of conflict and hostility would not be mainly economic and ideological
as during the cold war but the primary source of conflict in the new world would be
cultural.
The greatest dividing force among the humankind after the cold war would be the
cultural differences among the different civilisations. Even though the nation states
will be the dominating actors in the world politics. But the main conflicts of the
world politics will take place between states and group of various civilizations of the
world. So, in this regards the clash between civilizations will be the dominating
source in the global politics.
“The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future
“Huntington assumed this as the evolution of the latest phase of conflict in the post
cold war era. As after the peace of Westphalia emergence of the international system
the conflict were amongst the monarchies or princely states, emperor and
constitutional monarchies mostly in the western world who tried to expend their area
of influence or territories as well as economic strength. These were those factors
which derived them into the conflicts in that time. However, it was the French
revolution which reshape the basis of conflicts between nation’s states rather than
monarchies. The patterns of the conflict got changes after the world war 1st.After
the Balshavik revolution in Russia the nature of the conflict among the countries
shaped on the basis of the ideologies like the communism, fascism, Nazism and
liberal democracy. However, after the end of the second Great War the two
Showing Page:
2/5
ideologies dominated world politics the communism and capitalism which divided
the world into two main blocs.
The former conflicts between princes, nation states and ideological conflicts
between United states and USSR were all took place in the Western world but after
the post cold war era the international political base conflict would not be only
Western centric but would move to Western world to non Western world particularly
between the Western civilizations and non western civilizations. In the international
political process the non Western civilizations in the post cold war era would not
remain the objects or main target of Western colonial powers but would represent
themselves as the movers as well as shapers of the international order.
Samael Huntington’s on the nature of the civilizations argued that during the period
of the cold war the world wad divided into the first, second and third world but these
divisions have no relevancy in the coming era .In the post cold war era the divisions
of the world would be more convincing if the countries are grouped on the basis of
their cultural identities and civilization.
However, the central theme of the book is that the culture and cultural identities, in
the broadest level the civilizations identities would reshape the patterns of conflict
in the post cold war era. However, the author argued that even the cultural
differences exist among the different communities within the states as well as among
the states in a civilizations. But the common bonds among them distinguished them
from other civilizations .As for illustrations
Huntington mentioned the example of the two regions of Italy that they both are
different in term of their native culture, however, these two villages will still
maintain an overall Italian culture. This Italian culture is for different from that of
the German culture, but they both are part of a larger European culture, which
represents a part of Western civilization’s culture. Western civilization, as
Huntington argues, shares no commonality in cultural values with other civilizations
such as the Islamic and Confucian civilizations. Since Western civilization is largely
based on the distinguishing values of democracy and human rights while other
civilizations are not so as match with that of the West. Huntington mentioned that
this establish a divide between the “West and the rest”. Therefore, Huntington is of
the view that West and other civilizations will ultimately clash as they do not share
a broader cultural identity, and in this regards cultural differences get clashed.
Huntington strong and emphasizing argument is that ccultual differences will be the
dominating source of conflict among the civilizations because, the civilizations
Showing Page:
3/5
identities would get much importance in the future and world would get shaped by
the interactions of the seven or eight major civilisations these are the Western,
Confucian, Japanese, Hindu, Islamic, Orthodox, Latin America and African
civilisations and the most confronting civilizations will be Western and Islamic
civilisations.
Why civilizations clash? To answer this Huntington’s argued that the differentiating
features among the civilizations are not only real but they are ascriptive or basic.
Civilizations are different from each other on the basis of history language, customs,
and cultures and most importantly in term of religion. The people of the different
civilizations have different views regarding the relations between man and God,
relations between state and the citizens and having various views regarding their
duties and responsibilities, liberty, equality and authority etc. These differences are
long lasting and have originated for centuries which are more fundamental as
compare to the differences among political ideologies and political system. It doesn’t
mean that differences mean the conflict and conflict mean violence but there is
evidence that differences among civilizations have created the violent conflict.
The second argument provided by Huntington that globalisation make the world too
connected to each other, the interconnection process between individuals is
increasingly growing these growing communication developed the civilizations
consciousness and awareness about the differences and similarities within
civilizations. As in America Canadian investment would be positively welcomed as
compare to Japanese .French would react negatively on the immigration of North
African as they would positively welcomed the immigration of European Catholic
poles.
Third reason Huntington mentioned that civilizations clash because of the economic
modernisation and social change as in all over the world the economic development
separating the world from their local identities, and the nation states as a source of
identity are becoming weaken because of this also. In most of the world countries
the religion has fill this gap, in the shape of movements which are well known as
fundamentalist .most importantly the secularization of the world became a social
facts in people life in the late twenties century and revival of the religion provided a
base for identities and became a binding force that transcends the national
boundaries and establishes the civilizations.
Huntington claims that the civilizations consciousness is increasing, the growth of
civilization-consciousness and awareness is getting enhanced by the dual role of the
Showing Page:
4/5
West. On the one side, the West is at a peak of power. On the other side the non-
Western civilizations are coming to join the West as reshaper not as colonizers A
West at the peak of its power confronts non-Western countries that increasingly have
the desire as well as the will and the resources to shape the world in non-Western
ways.
Cultural features and its various differences are not easily mutable and as well they
are less easily compromised and forgotten than political and economic ones. As
during the cold war one can became a either democratic or communist. Like a rich
can become a poor a poor can become a rich but a person cannot become a half
Muslim or half catholic.
Economic regionalism is getting increased. The culture and the religion both are
becoming the basis of economic integration and cooperation like European Union,
Economic Cooperation Organisation etc. In the same way the differences on the
basis of religion and culture also create differences of policies of various aspects
whether related to trade, commerce, human rights, immigrations and environment
etc. But the most controversial would be that the west does effort to promote it liberal
democracy and its value as universal values to maintain its supremacy would faces
countering measures from other civilizations .with the end of the cold war the iron
curtain was ended also and ideological differences got disappeared and the culture
division is increasing among the civilizations. The most confronting civilizations
would be west with Islamic civilisation. After the world war second the West is
going to be retreat, the colonial legacy of west got ended? Arab nationalism and
Islamic fundamentalism was became the central theme of the Islamic word many
wars took place between Israel and Arab countries. France and Britain fought a war
with Egypt alongside with American forces, American forces fought war in labiya
and got engaged with Iran in many military encounters. The existence of the
American forces in the Persian Gulf to defend her allies and the some Arab countries
helping terrorists Organisation against Western countries are some illustration in this
regards.
According to the author that in the Arab world the Western democracy is highly
strengthening the anti Western political elements. This would future create
disturbing relations between West and Islamic countries. As conflict of civilizations
is deeply rooted in the Asia as compare to other civilizations. The clash between
Muslim and Hindus In the sub continent. In East Asia China has disputed relations
to its many neighbouring countries like the conflict with the Buddhist population in
Tibet and its policies towards Turkish Muslim minorities and most importantly after
the end of cold war there is likely to be developed between United States and China.
Cultural differences between United States and Japan escalated economic
Showing Page:
5/5
differences between them. But among these the Islamic civilisations has bloody
borders as compare to other civilizations.
Criticism:
Though the book clash of civilization gotten worldwide attention but it is not without
criticism as the famous American Writer Naum Chomsky regards the book as a new
justification for the United States autocracy.
Huntington got failed on this assumption that the cultural clash between different
civilization create conflicts but The fact is that the bloodiest battles take place within
civilisations, not between culturally different civilizations African killed Africans
in the Congo, Muslims are fighting against Muslims in Egypt, Yemen and the civil
war in Syria and other middle eastern countries than the US invasion of Iraq. During
the 19
th
century West entered a war in Yugoslavia to assist the Muslims in War.
Huntington argued that on the basis of cultural identities and religion states came to
nearer to each others and form alliances but it is not so in today world of realpolitik
where states seems their national interests only and relations are developed between
the states where there national interests are identical. They favour more their
interests as compare to religion.
CONCLUSION
Keeping in the view of aforementioned point one can not be wrong to say that the
clash of civilizations is one the most read debated book of Huntington. Though the
assumption of Huntington that the new pattern of conflict would be based on the
cultural differences was criticised by many writers but his assumption that the nation
states would remain the main actors in world politics and Asian states going to play
their role in international politics not as colonized states but main object and movers
of reshaper of new world order are true assumptions put forwards by the author in
the book.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

THE CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS (AND THE REMAKING OF WORLD ORDER) Book Review by Shabana Basheer The book Clash of Civilization and The Remaking of World Order is written by the well known American political scientist Samuel Huntington. The Clash of Civilization by author was Frist time presented in 1993 in shape of a article in foreign affairs forum and later the writer presented his this iconic work in shape of the book. This book which consists of five parts and 540 pages got worldwide attention and considered as one of the most debated and read book. In this book the main assumption which Huntington put forwarded is that the world politics is shifting into a new phase. As pointed out by the Francis Fokoyama that it will be the end of history is just a wrong assumption because in the coming years the main source of conflict and hostility would not be mainly economic and ideological as during the cold war but the primary source of conflict in the new world would be cultural. The greatest dividing force among the humankind after the cold war would be the cultural differences among the different civilisations. Even though the nation states will be the dominating actors in the world politics. But the main conflicts of the world politics will take place between states and group of various civilizations of the world. So, in this regards the clash between civilizations will be the dominating source in the global politics. “The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future “Huntington assumed this as the evolution of the latest phase of conflict in the post cold war era. As after the peace of Westphalia emergence of the international system the conflict were amongst the monarchies or princely states, emperor and constitutional monarchies mostly in the western world who tried to expend their area of influence or territories as well as economic strength. These were those factors which derived them into the conflicts in that time. However, it was the French revolution which reshape the basis of conflicts between nation’s states rather than monarchies. The patterns of the conflict got changes after the world war 1st.After the Balshavik revolution in Russia the nature of the conflict among the countries shaped on the basis of the ideologies like the communism, fascism, Nazism and liberal democracy. However, after the end of the second Great War the two ideologies dominated world politics the communism and capitalism which divided the world into two main blocs. The former conflicts between princes, nation states and ideological conflicts between United states and USSR were all took place in the Western world but after the post cold war era the international political base conflict would not be only Western centric but would move to Western world to non Western world particularly between the Western civilizations and non western civilizations. In the international political process the non Western civilizations in the post cold war era would not remain the objects or main target of Western colonial powers but would represent themselves as the movers as well as shapers of the international order. Samael Huntington’s on the nature of the civilizations argued that during the period of the cold war the world wad divided into the first, second and third world but these divisions have no relevancy in the coming era .In the post cold war era the divisions of the world would be more convincing if the countries are grouped on the basis of their cultural identities and civilization. However, the central theme of the book is that the culture and cultural identities, in the broadest level the civilizations identities would reshape the patterns of conflict in the post cold war era. However, the author argued that even the cultural differences exist among the different communities within the states as well as among the states in a civilizations. But the common bonds among them distinguished them from other civilizations .As for illustrations Huntington mentioned the example of the two regions of Italy that they both are different in term of their native culture, however, these two villages will still maintain an overall Italian culture. This Italian culture is for different from that of the German culture, but they both are part of a larger European culture, which represents a part of Western civilization’s culture. Western civilization, as Huntington argues, shares no commonality in cultural values with other civilizations such as the Islamic and Confucian civilizations. Since Western civilization is largely based on the distinguishing values of democracy and human rights while other civilizations are not so as match with that of the West. Huntington mentioned that this establish a divide between the “West and the rest”. Therefore, Huntington is of the view that West and other civilizations will ultimately clash as they do not share a broader cultural identity, and in this regards cultural differences get clashed. Huntington strong and emphasizing argument is that ccultual differences will be the dominating source of conflict among the civilizations because, the civilizations identities would get much importance in the future and world would get shaped by the interactions of the seven or eight major civilisations these are the Western, Confucian, Japanese, Hindu, Islamic, Orthodox, Latin America and African civilisations and the most confronting civilizations will be Western and Islamic civilisations. Why civilizations clash? To answer this Huntington’s argued that the differentiating features among the civilizations are not only real but they are ascriptive or basic. Civilizations are different from each other on the basis of history language, customs, and cultures and most importantly in term of religion. The people of the different civilizations have different views regarding the relations between man and God, relations between state and the citizens and having various views regarding their duties and responsibilities, liberty, equality and authority etc. These differences are long lasting and have originated for centuries which are more fundamental as compare to the differences among political ideologies and political system. It doesn’t mean that differences mean the conflict and conflict mean violence but there is evidence that differences among civilizations have created the violent conflict. The second argument provided by Huntington that globalisation make the world too connected to each other, the interconnection process between individuals is increasingly growing these growing communication developed the civilizations consciousness and awareness about the differences and similarities within civilizations. As in America Canadian investment would be positively welcomed as compare to Japanese .French would react negatively on the immigration of North African as they would positively welcomed the immigration of European Catholic poles. Third reason Huntington mentioned that civilizations clash because of the economic modernisation and social change as in all over the world the economic development separating the world from their local identities, and the nation states as a source of identity are becoming weaken because of this also. In most of the world countries the religion has fill this gap, in the shape of movements which are well known as fundamentalist .most importantly the secularization of the world became a social facts in people life in the late twenties century and revival of the religion provided a base for identities and became a binding force that transcends the national boundaries and establishes the civilizations. Huntington claims that the civilizations consciousness is increasing, the growth of civilization-consciousness and awareness is getting enhanced by the dual role of the West. On the one side, the West is at a peak of power. On the other side the nonWestern civilizations are coming to join the West as reshaper not as colonizers A West at the peak of its power confronts non-Western countries that increasingly have the desire as well as the will and the resources to shape the world in non-Western ways. Cultural features and its various differences are not easily mutable and as well they are less easily compromised and forgotten than political and economic ones. As during the cold war one can became a either democratic or communist. Like a rich can become a poor a poor can become a rich but a person cannot become a half Muslim or half catholic. Economic regionalism is getting increased. The culture and the religion both are becoming the basis of economic integration and cooperation like European Union, Economic Cooperation Organisation etc. In the same way the differences on the basis of religion and culture also create differences of policies of various aspects whether related to trade, commerce, human rights, immigrations and environment etc. But the most controversial would be that the west does effort to promote it liberal democracy and its value as universal values to maintain its supremacy would faces countering measures from other civilizations .with the end of the cold war the iron curtain was ended also and ideological differences got disappeared and the culture division is increasing among the civilizations. The most confronting civilizations would be west with Islamic civilisation. After the world war second the West is going to be retreat, the colonial legacy of west got ended? Arab nationalism and Islamic fundamentalism was became the central theme of the Islamic word many wars took place between Israel and Arab countries. France and Britain fought a war with Egypt alongside with American forces, American forces fought war in labiya and got engaged with Iran in many military encounters. The existence of the American forces in the Persian Gulf to defend her allies and the some Arab countries helping terrorists Organisation against Western countries are some illustration in this regards. According to the author that in the Arab world the Western democracy is highly strengthening the anti Western political elements. This would future create disturbing relations between West and Islamic countries. As conflict of civilizations is deeply rooted in the Asia as compare to other civilizations. The clash between Muslim and Hindus In the sub continent. In East Asia China has disputed relations to its many neighbouring countries like the conflict with the Buddhist population in Tibet and its policies towards Turkish Muslim minorities and most importantly after the end of cold war there is likely to be developed between United States and China. Cultural differences between United States and Japan escalated economic differences between them. But among these the Islamic civilisations has bloody borders as compare to other civilizations. Criticism: Though the book clash of civilization gotten worldwide attention but it is not without criticism as the famous American Writer Naum Chomsky regards the book as a new justification for the United States autocracy. Huntington got failed on this assumption that the cultural clash between different civilization create conflicts but The fact is that the bloodiest battles take place within civilisations, not between culturally different civilizations – African killed Africans in the Congo, Muslims are fighting against Muslims in Egypt, Yemen and the civil war in Syria and other middle eastern countries than the US invasion of Iraq. During the 19th century West entered a war – in Yugoslavia to assist the Muslims in War. Huntington argued that on the basis of cultural identities and religion states came to nearer to each others and form alliances but it is not so in today world of realpolitik where states seems their national interests only and relations are developed between the states where there national interests are identical. They favour more their interests as compare to religion. CONCLUSION Keeping in the view of aforementioned point one can not be wrong to say that the clash of civilizations is one the most read debated book of Huntington. Though the assumption of Huntington that the new pattern of conflict would be based on the cultural differences was criticised by many writers but his assumption that the nation states would remain the main actors in world politics and Asian states going to play their role in international politics not as colonized states but main object and movers of reshaper of new world order are true assumptions put forwards by the author in the book. Name: Description: ...
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.
Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4