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Gram Positive Cocci
Organism
Morphology
Biochemical tests
Diseases
Additional
information
Staphylococcus
aureus
Creamy yellow
on BAP, smooth,
and clearing of
the blood agar
(beta-hemolysis).
Catalase +
Coagulase +
Voges- Proskauer
+
MRSA, TSS,
Furuncles, cellulitis,
and bulbous
Usually found in
the naris, axillae,
vagina, pharynx,
and other skin
surfaces.
Nonmotile, non-
spore formidably ,
oxidase , and
facultative
anaerobic.
Mannitol is used to
grow S. Aureus.
Staphylococcus
epidermidis
Medium sized,
white, opaque,
flat colonies, and
gamma
hemolysis.
Catalase +
Coagulase
Bacitracin R
Novobiocin S
H2S +
Methyl Red
Urease
Voges-Proskauer
+
Nonsocomial UTIs,
prosthetic
valves/devices,
indwelling catheters,
One factor that's
involved in
adherence is poly-
gamma-DL-
glutamic acid
which proofs a
protective
advantage against
host defenses. It's
found in skin and
mucous membrane.
Staphylococcus
saprophyticus
Large, entire,
very glossy,
smooth, opaque,
convex, and white
to yellow
Catalase +
Coagulase
Bacitracin R
Novobiocin R
Associated with UTIs
in women.
Usually found after
intercourse.
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Staphylococcus
lugdunensis
Small, yellow or
gold
pigmentation, 3-5
day's incubation,
and gamma
hemolysis.
Catalase +
Nitrate reduction
+
Ornithine
decarboxylase +
PYR +
Oxidase
Slide coagulase +
Endocarditis,
septicemia,
meningitis, skin and
soft tissue infection,
UTIs, and septic
shock.
Known to have the
mecA gene. The
organism can grow
in rich media at 30
to 40 degrees
Celsius. It's found
in skin and soft
tissue infections.
Streptococcus
pyrogens
Small,
transparent,
smooth, and well
defined beta
hemolysis.
Catalase
PYR +
Bacitracin S
CAMP -
Strep throat,
Rheumatic fever, and
acute
glomerulonephritis.
Streptolysin S
causes the clearing
of the blood cells
in the plate.
Erythrogenic toxin
produces the
characteristics
found in Scarlet
Fever.
It's found I'm
respiratory, skin
lesions, blood, and
sputum.
Streptococcus
agalactiae
Grayish, white,
mucoid colonies,
and a zone of beta
hydrolysis.
Catalase
PYR
Bacitracin R
CAMP +
Hippurate
hydrolysis +
Neonatal meningitis
and abortions.
For treatment it's
usually penicillin
that's given as a
drug of choice. It's
usually found in
vagina or rectal.
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Streptococcus
pneumoniae
Round,
glistening, wet,
mucoid, dome
shaped, and
produces large
zone of alpha
hemolysis.
Optochin S
Bile esculin S
Vancomycin S
Bacitracin S
PYR
CAMP
6.5% NaCl -
Pneumonia and
meningitis
It appears as GPC
diplococci, or it's
slightly pointed or
lancet shaped.
Penicillin is the
drug of choice. It's
found in both the
nose and throat.
Viridians
Small and
surrounded by
zone of alpha
hemolysis.
Optochin R, bile
esculin R
Vancomycin S
Bacitracin R
Hippurate
hydrolysis
PYR
CAMP -
Gingivitis, dental
caries, and subacute
bacteria endocarditis.
Normal microbiota
of Upper
Respiratory tract,
female genital
tract, and
gastrointestinal.
Also can be
fastidious.
Enterococcus spp.
Sphere/oval shape
with alpha
hemolysis.
Bile esculin S
6.5% NaCl S
PYR +
UTIs, endocarditis,
and bacteremia.
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Haemophilus and other fastidious Gram Negative Bacilli
Organism
Morphology
Biochemical
tests
Additional
information
Haemophilus
influenzae
Gray, raised,
smooth
colonies. Mousy
and/or bleach
like odor on
chocolate agar.
Oxidase +
Catalase +
Glucose
required
Nitrate +
There's an effect
that grows
around S.
Aureus and it's
called satellite
phenomenon.
Haemophilus ducreyi
Small, flat,
smooth,
nonmucoid,
transparent to
opaque
colonies, or the
colonies can
appear tan or
yellow on
chocolate agar.
Microscopic
may show pale
staining G
coccobacilli
arranged singly
or in
clusters/groups.
Oxidase
Catalase
ONPG
Glucose -,
sucrose-,
mannose-,
fructose-,
mannitol-,
maltose-,
Xylose-, and
lactose -
It's the causative
agent of
chancroid, it's
highly
communicable
sexually
transmitted
genital ulcer
disease or
GUD.
Haemophilus
parainfluenza
Tannish, dry,
and medium to
large colonies
Catalase
variable
Oxidase +
Esculin
Nitrate +
Glucose +
Sucrose +
Factor V is
required for
Haemophilus
parainfluenza
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Aggregatibacter
aphrophilus
Yellow, raised,
convex,
granular, an
opaque zone
near the center
on chocolate
agar.
Catalase -
Oxidase
variable
ONPG +
Esculin
Nitrate +
Foam-loving or
Co2 (high)
concentration.
Aggregatibacter
actinomycetemcomitan
s
Small colonies
that adhere to
agar.
Catalase +
Oxidase
variable
Factor V & X
(R)
Urease
Indole
Esculin
Citrate
Glucose +
Found in
endogenous
animal biota. It
also doesn't
grow on MAC
agar. It's also
seen normal
human
microbiota.
Cardiobacterium
hominis
Smooth,
opaque,
adherent to
agar.
Oxidase +
Catalase
Indole
Glucose +
Mannitol +
Sucrose +
Maltose +
Urease
Nitrate
Gelatin
Esculin -
Found in
normal nares,
mouth, and
throat
microbiota. It
grows slowly on
SBA and
Choclate agar.
No growth on
MAC agar.
Choice of
treatment is
penicillin and
an
aminoglycoside.
Eikenella corrodens
Pits on the agar.
Catalase
Oxidase +
Glucose -
Maltose
Sucrose
Lactose
Ornithine +
Normal biota of
the mouth and
bowel cavities.
The smell it
gives off is a
bleach-like
odor.
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Kingella Kingae
Spreading and
corroding or
smooth and
convex.
Large white to
beige with beta
hemolysis
colonies on
SBA.
Catalase
Oxidase +
Glucose +
Maltose +
Sucrose
Lactose
Nitrate -
Does not grow
on MAC agar. It
can vary for
optimal growth
at 42 degrees.
Legionella
Buffered
Charcoal Yeast
Extract: grayish
white, blue
green, convex,
and glistening
colonies. Young
colonies will
appear ground
glass.
Urine antigen
test, Direct
Fluorescent
Antibody test,
and DNA
detection.
Found in
waters, hot
springs, and
mud. Bronchial
washing,
sputum, and
bronchoalveolar
lavage are
usually the
specimen to
collect this
infection. Does
not grow on
SBA and needs
L-cystine for
growth.
Bordetella pertussis
On bordet
gengou agar:
small, domed,
and glistening
colonies that
resemble
bisected pearls.
With variable
beta hemolysis.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Urease
Nitrate -
To isolate
bordetella spp.
It needs Bordet
gengou agar to
grow bordetella.
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Bordetella
parapertussis
On bordet
gengou agar:
small, domed,
and glistening
colonies that
resemble
bisected pearls.
With variable
beta hemolysis.
Catalase +
Oxidase
Urease +
Nitrate -
To isolate
bordetella spp.
It needs Bordet
gengou agar to
grow bordetella
Bordetella
brochiseptica
Small, gray to
white, shiny
colonies on
blood agar
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Nitrate +
It's rarely seen
in humans.
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Neisseria spp. & Moraxella catarrhalis
Organism
Morphology
Biochemical tests
Diseases
Additional
information
Neisseria
gonorrhoeae
Small, gray/white,
translucent, raised
with entire edge,
usually easily
emulsified.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose +
Lactose
Maltose
Gonorrhea
Specimen
collection for men:
urethra
Specimen
collection for
women:
endocervix.
Needs Chocolate
and MTM agar for
growth.
Neisseria
meningitidis
Colorless to gray,
convex, smooth
colonies.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose +
Maltose +
Lactose
Meningitis
Drug of choice for
meningitis is
penicillin. For
meningitis CSF
must be collected.
Moraxella
catarrhalis
Smooth, opaque,
gray to white
colonies on
chocolate and blood
agar.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose -
Maltose -
Lactose
Nitrate +
Nitrite +
DNase +
Butyrate esterase +
Upper
respiratory tract
infection, acute
otitis media,
sinusitis,
endocarditis,
meningitis,
bacterial
tracheitis.
It can grow at 35-
37 degrees Celsius
but can grow best
at 28 degrees
Celsius. It's
collected from
middle ear
effusion,
nasopharynx, sinus
aspirates, sputum
aspirates, or
bronchial aspirates.
It's commensal of
upper respiratory
tract.
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Neisseria cinera
Small, grayish white,
translucent, raised
with entire edge and
slightly granular. It's
been said it
resembles
gonorrhea.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose
Maltose
Lactose -
Recurrent
bacterial
peritonitis.
It lacks the yellow
pigmentation. It
also helps
differentiate
between
flavescens. Found
in nasopharynx.
Neisseria
flavescens
Yellow, convex,
smooth colonies.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose -
Maltose -
Lactose -
Septicemia,
necrotizing
pneumonia,
empyema, and
pneumonia.
It can grow at 22
degrees Celsius on
both SBA and
chocolate agar.
Usually found in
pharynx.
Neisseria lactamica
Small, grayish white
(with yellow rings),
translucent, slightly
butyrous.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose +
Maltose +
Lactose +
Arthritis,
septicemia, and
bacteraemic
pneumonia.
It's been said it can
resemble
meningitidis only
smaller. Found
usually in
nasopharynx of
both infants and
small children. It's
rarely found in
adults. Grows on
MTM and ML
Agars. It can grow
at 37 degrees
Celsius.
Neisseria mucosa
Large, gray to buff
yellow, translucent,
mucoid, vicious,
smooth surface, and
entire edge.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose +
Maltose +
Lactose
Sucrose +
Fructose +
Children
pneumonia and
endocarditis.
It can grow on
SBA and chocolate
agar at 22 degrees
Celsius. It's found
usually in
nasopharynx.
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Neisseria
polysaccharea
Small, gray,
translucent, raised
colonies.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose +
Maltose +
Lactose
Unknown
It can grow on an
agar at 35 degrees
Celsius. Found in
nasopharynx of
infants and
children. Can grow
on MTM and MT
Agars.
Neisseria sicca
Large, gray white,
opaque, deeply
wrinkled, dry,
irregular, crumb like
colonies.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose +
Maltose +
Lactose
Sucrose variable
Fructose +
Peritonitis,
meningitis,
pneumonia, and
spondylitis.
Usually found in
nasopharynx,
saliva, and sputum.
Grow on agar at 35
degrees Celsius.
Neisseria subflava
Small, greenish
yellow or yellow,
smooth surface with
entire edge.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose +
Maltose +
Bacteremia,
meningitis,
septicemia, and
septic shock.
It's usually found
in nasopharynx.
Neisseria elongata
Large, grayish white
with yellow tinge,
low convex, claylike
colony, difficult to
emulsify.
Catalase
Oxidase +
Glucose
Maltose
Lactose -
Endocarditis
and
osteomyelitis
Usually found in
nasopharynx.
Grows on SBA and
Chocolate Agars at
22 degrees Celsius.
Also grows on
nutrient Agars at
35 degrees Celsius.
Neisseria weaveri
Small, semiopaque,
with smooth
appearance.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Glucose
Maltose
Lactose
Dog bite
infection.
It's usually found
in dogs oral
microbiota.
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Bioterrorism organism
Organism
Morphology
Testing
Diseases
Additional
information
Bacillus anthracis
Nonhemolytic,
ground glass,
irregular, and
medusa head.
Catalase +
Glucose +
Mannitol
Arabinose
Xylose
Lecithinase
producer
Sent to LRN
reference
laboratory.
Skin anthrax
(cutaneous),
gastrointestinal
anthrax
(ingestion), and
pulmonary anthrax
(inhalation).
Gram positive,
aerobic, endospore
producer. It can be
transmitted by
ingestion,
inhalation, and
cutaneous.
Collecting
specimen include:
lesion fluid,
eschars, blood, and
cerebrospinal
fluid. It's sensitive
to penicillin.
Grows in high salt
concentration and
low pH. When to
check for motility
use wet mount
technique or
motility test
medium. India ink
on blood can be
used to detect
anthracis.
Yersinia petis
Nonhemolytic,
flattened edges,
raised center,
mucoid, and fried
egg appearance.
Catalase +
Oxidase
Urease
Sent to LRN
laboratory
bubonic plague,
septicemic plague,
and pneumonic
plague.
For growth it
needs to sit 48-72
hours before
visible growth
appears. It also
grows on Mac
agar.
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Francisella
tularensis
Tiny, grayish
white, opaque,
butyrous and
smooth colonies
on chocolate agar
Greenish blue,
medium sized,
butyrous and
smooth colonies
on Cysteine Heart
Agar.
Catalase +
Beta-lactamase +
Factor V & X (R)
Urease
Oxidase.
Ucleroglandular
disease and
ulcerative lesion.
Optimal growth
needs cysteine.
Some Agars that
work include:
Chocolate,
Modified Thayer-
Martin, cysteine
heart, and buffered
charcoal yeast
extract. It's a slow
grower.mit won't
grow on Mac agar.
Brucella species
Small, circular,
smooth, convex,
nonpigmented, and
nonhemolytic.
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Nitrate reduction
Urease +
Undulant fever,
goat fever, bang
disease,
Mediterranean
fever, Gibraltar
fever, and Malta
fever.
B. Melitensis
(goat/sheep)
B. Suis (swine)
B. Canis (dogs)
Broken skin,
ingestion of
infected, &
inhalation
Burkholderia
species
Pinpoint or small,
grey (24 hours)
Grey, smooth,
translucent (48
hours) for B.
Mallei
Smooth and
creamy (24 hours)
Dry/mucoid,
smooth, and
creamy (48 hours)
B. Pseudomallei
Catalase +
Oxidase +
Indole
Polymyxin (R)
ADH +
Glander disease
and melioidosis
Found in horses,
donkeys, and
mules. Specimen
collection include:
blood, bone
marrow, sputum,
bronchial alveolar
lavage, abcesses,
urine, and serum.
Must be incubated
at 35 degrees
Celsius in 5% CO2
doe 5 days. Can
use MALDI-TOF
for confirmation
for B.
Pseudomallei.
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Coxiella burnetii
None
PCR assays
Q fever
Seen in cattle,
goats, and sheep.
Specimen
collection include:
blood, serum,
tissue, and body
fluids. Acute phase
produce high titers
to phase II
antigens. Chronic
have high titers
with phase I
antibodies.
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Clinical Virology
Organism
Structure
Mode of
transmission
Disease(s)
Treatment/immuni
ty
Vaccinatio
n
Adenoviridae
(Adenovirus)
Naked
Double
stranded
DNA
Aerosols,
fomites, oral-
fecal, and
personal
contact.
Acute
respiratory
disease,
conjunctivitis,
and acute
hemorrhagic
cystitis.
Require no
specific treatment.
Immunity is
given.
Oral
vaccination
.
Herpes simplex
virus 1 & 2
Double
stranded
DNA
Personal
contact,
sexually
transmitted,
and placenta
crossing.
Oral herpes
(mainly 1 and/or
2)
Genital herpes
(mainly 2 and/or
1)
Neonatal herpes
(mainly 2)
Herpes simplex
virus
encephalitis (2 in
children and 1 in
adults)
Ocular herpes
(mainly 1)
Oral/genital
herpes treated
with acyclovir,
valacyclovir, and
famciclovir. Not
curable
Ocular herpes can
be treated with
antiviral eye
drops.
Unknown.
Epstein-Barr
Virus
(Lymphocrypt-
ovirus)
Double
stranded
Virus
Infected saliva
Infectious
mononucleosis
Natural remedy
Unknown
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Varicella Zoster
Virus
(Varicellovirus)
Double
stranded
DNA
Droplet
inhalation and
direct contact
with lesion
Varicella
(chickenpox)
and Zoster
(Shingles)
Acyclovir and
valacyclovir to
help treat
chickenpox and
shingles. It's also
self treatable
Varivax for
chickenpox
Zostavax
for shingles
Human
herpesvirus 6
(Roseolovirus)
Double
stranded
DNA
Infected saliva,
droplet
inhalation, and
infected
individuals
Roseolo
infantium,
exanthem
subitum, and
sixth disease.
Cidofovir and
Foscarnet for
HHV-6.
None
Human
herpesvirus 7
(Roseolovirus)
Double
stranded
DNA
Infected saliva
Roseola rash
infection
Natural remedy.
None
Human
herpesvirus 8
(Rhadinovirus)
Double
stranded
DNA
HIV/AIDS
related and
sexual contact.
Kaposi sarcoma
Radiation,
Chemotherapy,
zidovudine,
ritonavir, and
indinavir.
None
Papillomavirida
e
Double
stranded
DNA
Sexual contact
Common wart
Surgery,
cryotherapy, and
laser.
Gardasil
Variola virus
Double
stranded
DNA
Droplet, skin
to skin,
infected saliva,
infected blood
products, and
fomites.
Smallpox
None
None
Monkeypox
virus
Double
stranded
DNA
Transmitted by
Gambian Rat
MonkeyPox
None
None
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