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EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
A project report submitted for examination in fulfillment of the requirements for the course unit
APP 406 RESEARCH PROJECT in the Bachelor of Arts (Public policy and administration)
Degree program.
Name: DARLINE APIYO J
Sign ....................... Date ......................
Registration number: C155/4534/2017
Degree program: PUBLIC POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION
Project supervisor: Dr. JANE NJOROGE
Sign ............................. Date...................
SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
KENYATTA UNIVERSITY
MAY,2021
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DECLARATION.
This research is my original work and has not been presented for discussion in any other
university.
Sign................... Date...................
DARLINE APIYO J.
C155/4534/2017
This research has been submitted with my approval as the university supervisor.
Sign.................. Date......................
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DR. JANE NJOROGE
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT.
DEDICATION.
This proposal is dedicated to my loving parents and my family for the support throughout the
study.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.
I would like to thank almighty God for giving me life, health and spirit to carry out this study. I
would also love to acknowledge the continuous guidance from my supervisor Dr.Njoroge and the
help of many great people. Their dedication towards helping through the completion of this study
has been overwhelming and is highly appreciated. To the respondents who took their precious
time with the questionnaires, many thanks. Special gratitude to those who believed in me and
gave me hope. To any other person who helped with the journey may God bless abundantly.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION. ......................................................................................................................................... 1
DEDICATION. ............................................................................................................................................. 3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. ........................................................................................................................... 4
LIST OF TABLES. ....................................................................................................................................... 7
LIST OF FIGURES. ..................................................................................................................................... 8
LIST OF APPENDICES. .............................................................................................................................. 8
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS. .............................................................................................. 9
ABBREVIATION AND ACRONYMS. .................................................................................................... 10
ABSTRACT. ............................................................................................................................................... 10
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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION. ................................................................................................................. 11
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. .......................................................................................................... 11
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT. ..................................................................................................................... 15
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES. .................................................................................................................... 16
1.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE. ....................................................................................................... 16
1.3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES. ...................................................................................................... 16
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES.................................................................................................................... 16
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. .......................................................................................................... 17
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY. ....................................................................................................................... 17
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY. ............................................................................................................ 17
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW. ............................................................................................ 17
2.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................. 17
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK. ............................................................................................................ 18
2.2.1 THEORY Y. ............................................................................................................................. 18
2.2.2 HERZBERG'S MOTIVATION THEORY. .......................................................................... 18
2.2.3 GOAL SETTING THEORY OF MOTIVATION. ............................................................... 20
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW. .......................................................................................................................... 21
2.3.1 EMPLOYEES PARTICIPATION. ........................................................................................ 21
2.3.2 ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE. ............................................................................. 23
2.4 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. ............................................................................................................. 26
2.4.1 CONCEPTUAL MODEL. ....................................................................................................... 27
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. ........................................................................................... 28
3.1 INTRODUCTION. ................................................................................................................................ 28
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN. ........................................................................................................................... 28
3.3 TARGET POPULATION. ...................................................................................................................... 29
3.3.1 TABLE 1: POPULATION OF THE STUDY. ....................................................................... 29
3.4 SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURE. .............................................................................................. 29
3.4.1 TABLE 2: SAMPLE SIZE. ..................................................................................................... 30
3.5 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS. ................................................................................................... 31
3.5.1 TABLE 3: RELIABILITY TEST RESULTS ........................................................................ 31
3.6 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE. ...................................................................................................... 32
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS METHODS................................................................................................................ 32
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CHAPTER FOUR: EMPIRICAL RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS. ..................................................... 32
4.1 INTRODUCTION. ................................................................................................................................ 32
4.2 RESPONSE RATE. ............................................................................................................................... 32
4.2.1 TABLE 4: RESPONSE RATE ................................................................................................ 33
4.3 SECTION 1: PERSONAL DATA. ........................................................................................................... 33
4.3.1 GENDER DISTRIBUTION. (SOURCE, FIELD STUDY) .................................................. 33
4.3.2 AGE DISTRIBUTION. ........................................................................................................... 34
4.3.3 MARITAL STATUS. ............................................................................................................... 34
4.3.4 DISTRIBUTION BY EDUCATION LEVELS. .................................................................... 35
4.3.5 JOB EXPERIENCE. ................................................................................................................ 35
4.4 SECTION 2: GENERAL QUESTIONS ON EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION. ................................................. 36
4.4.1 QUESTION 1, MOTIVATION. ............................................................................................. 36
4.4.2 QUESTION 2, PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING. .................................................. 37
4.4.3 QUESTION 3, REPRESENTATIVE PARTICIPATION. ................................................... 38
4.4.4 SECTION 3; ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE. ..................................................... 39
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS. ......................................... 42
5.1 INTRODUCTION. ................................................................................................................................ 42
5.2 SUMMARY. ........................................................................................................................................ 42
5.3 CONCLUSIONS. .................................................................................................................................. 43
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY IMPLICATION. ............................................................................ 43
5.5 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH. ............................................................................. 44
REFERENCES. .......................................................................................................................................... 45
LIST OF TABLES.
Table 3.3.1 Population of the study............
Table 3.4.1 Sample size............
Table 3.5.1 Reliability test results..........
Table 4.2.1 Response rate......
Table 4.3.1 Gender distribution....
Table 4.3.2 Age distribution.......
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Table 4.3.3 Marital status.......
Table 4.3.4 Distribution by education levels.....
Table 4.3.5 Job experience........
Table 4.4.1 Question 1, Motivation......
Table 4.4.2 Question 2, Participative decision making.....
Table 4.4.3 Question 3, Representative participation......
Table 4.4.4 Organizational Performance........
LIST OF FIGURES.
Figure 2.4.1 Conceptual Model.
LIST OF APPENDICES.
Appendix 1 Questionnaire.
Appendix 2 Interview Questions.
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