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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Human resource development
Human resources development is the process of increasing the knowledge, the skills and
the capacities of all the people in a society. In economic terms, it could be described as the
accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an
economy. In political terms, human resources development prepares people for adult
participation in political processes, particularly as citizens in a democracy. From the social
and cultural points of view, the development of human resources helps people to lead fuller
and richer lives, less bound by tradition. In short, the processes of human resources
development unlock the door to modernization.
Human resource development can also be termed as a framework for helping employees
develop their personal and organisational skills, knowledge and abilities. Human resource
development-it’s a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to
provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands.
It includes training an individual after he or she is first hired, providing opportunities to learn
new skills, distributing resources that are beneficial for the employee’s tasks and any other
developmental activities.
It entails preparing for future responsibilities while increasing the capacity to perform at a
current job.
Importance of hr. development
1. It develops competent human resource-hrd develops the skills and knowledge of
individuals hence it helps provide competent and efficient human resource as per the
job requirements.
2. Human resource development creates an opportunity for career development.
3. employee commitment
4. Job satisfaction.
5. Performance improvement.
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How to identity the various organisational development programmes and advice the
management on the suitable programmes offered in a multinational organisation
Organizational development
Organizational development is any process of activity based on the behavioural
sciences that either initially or over the long term has potential to develop in an
organizational setting enhanced knowledge, expertise, productivity, satisfaction, income,
interpersonal relationships and other desired outcomes whether for personal or group/team
gain or for the benefit of an organisation, community, nation, region or ultimately, the whole
of humanity (Mclean and Mclean, 2001).
It may also refer to the process of increasing organizational effectiveness and
facilitating personal and organizational change through the use of interventions driven by
social and behavioural science knowledge. As objectives of organizational development are
framed keeping in view specific situations, they vary from one situation to another. In other
words, these programs are tailored to meet the requirements of a particular situation. But
broadly speaking, all organizational development programs try to achieve the following
objectives:
1. Making individuals in the organization aware of the vision of the organization.
Organizational development helps in making employees align with the vision of the
organization.
2. Encouraging employees to solve problems instead of avoiding them.
3. Strengthening inter-personnel trust, cooperation, and communication for the
successful achievement of organizational goals.
4. Encouraging every individual to participate in the process of planning, thus making
them feel responsible for the implementation of the plan.
5. Creating a work atmosphere in which employees are encouraged to work and
participate enthusiastically.
6. Replacing formal lines of authority with personal knowledge and skill.
7. Creating an environment of trust so that employees willingly accept change.
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Organisational development programs of a multinational company
Team Dynamics and Team Building;
This program provides research-based information and teaches skills that can help
teams maximize interaction and outcomes. It is applicable to anyone in an
organization who is assembling a temporary or permanent team or already works in a
team or department that would like to improve teaming processes and performance.
This program helps in:
Differentiating teams and working groups
Making a team successful
Understanding how different motivational tendencies can affect team success
Working together more effectively
Building and leading teams
Maximizing team interaction and decision making
Leadership Development;
More and more companies are beginning to suffer from leadership deficits that lead to
unethical behaviour in the workplace. Recent research also indicates that employees
require career development opportunities in their companies. There is a need to
strengthen existing leadership and to prepare future leaders. This program can target
both types of participants. The program includes assessing one's leadership strengths
and weaknesses and creating a leadership development plan. The program covers:
Situational leadership
Coaching others
Fostering organizational vision
Strategic planning issues in organizations
Aligning strategy, structure, and culture
Stress and Stress Management;
This program provides participants with tools to replenish personal resources, to
become more resilient to demands and to achieve greater emotional well-being.
Previous studies have shown that program participants exhibit decreased stress and
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depression, improved mood and work perceptions, higher productivity and lower
absenteeism. It covers:
Managing workplace stress
Designing a comprehensive stress program
Using self-managed work teams to reduce the impact of stressors
Evaluating stress in the workplace
Healthy Workplace
Contemporary employees increasingly express a need to be engaged by their
employers. With work-life balance and health and safety issues on the rise,
organizations are finding that they must be creative in meeting employee needs in
order to remain competitive. This program is directed toward organizations that are
interested in identifying healthy workplace issues or developing new healthy
workplace initiatives, based on the work of the American Psychological Association.
It entails:
Creating effective two-way communication between the organization and employees
Linking healthy workplace programs to organizational outcomes
Diagnosing the health of an organization
Cultivating employee engagement in the workplace
Thinking through different healthy workplace programs
Employee Motivation
Employee motivation is a constant concern within organizations. Many organizations
implement techniques such as Management by Objectives, 360 Feedback and
compensation bonuses as ways to motivate employees to perform at a higher level.
Unfortunately, this one-size-fits-all approach often does not yield results because all
employees are different and require different motivational techniques. This program is
directed toward organizations that are interested in finding new ways of unlocking the
intrinsic motivation of their workforce. It entails:
Motivating others
Assessing motivational tendencies
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Using the Inventory of Work Attitude and Motivation (iWAM) as a tool for selection,
management, and group development
Mentoring and Employee Development:
Many organizations are beginning to recognize the importance of retaining and
developing their competence employees. Mentoring is a powerful way to help
employees develop. This program is applicable to organizations that are interested in
improving the development of employees through a mentoring process. It covers:
Designing, implementing, and evaluating effective mentoring programs
Successful mentors, protégés and partnerships
Mentoring principles, processes and roles
Managerial Communication:
Few skills are as important to business and career success as the ability to
communicate effectively. This program will help employees develop effective
communication skills, with emphases specifically placed on interpersonal, public
speaking in small and large group settings, business writing, technological workplace
(such as email and PowerPoint) and negotiation skills. In doing so, employees will
have a much clearer understanding of the components of strategic business
communication and apply them in numerous business contexts. It includes Strategic
communication ,Effective business writing, Interpersonal communication (one on
one) ,Public speaking - small & large group presentations and Assertiveness
To Distinguish between performance management and performance appraisal.
Performance management
Performance management is the process of identifying, measuring, managing and developing
the performance of the human resources in an organization. It can also be defined as process
through which supervisors and those they lead gain a shared understanding of work
experience and goals, exchange performance feedback, identity learning of development
opportunities and evaluate performance results.
. A performance management system includes the following actions.
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Develop clear job descriptions.
Select appropriate people with an appropriate selection process.
Negotiate requirements and accomplishment-based performance standards, outcomes,
and measures.
Provide effective orientation, education, and training.
Provide on-going coaching and feedback.
Conduct quarterly performance development discussions.
Design effective compensation and recognition systems that reward people for their
contributions.
Provide promotional/career development opportunities for staff.
Assist with exit interviews to understand WHY valued employees leave the
organization.
The diagram below elaborates the performance management process as follows:
Performance
planning
Quarterly
performance check -
in
Alignment with mission
and vision
Day- to day
coaching &
feedback
Formal performance
review
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Performance appraisal
Performance appraisal refers to actively involving employees in understanding what is
expected of them by setting agreed objectives and later reviewing the results where each
employee is responsible for his or her own performance.
It can also refer to the the ongoing process of evaluating employee performance in general.
Objectives of Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal can be done with following objectives in mind:
1. To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure,
salaries raises, etc.
2. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right
job.
3. To maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and
development.
4. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
5. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
6. It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees.
7. To review and retain the promotional and other training programmes.
Advantages of Performance Appraisal
It is said that performance appraisal is an investment for the company which can be justified
by following advantages:
1. Promotion: Performance Appraisal helps the supervisors to chalk out the promotion
programmes for efficient employees. In this regards, inefficient workers can be
dismissed or demoted in case.
2. Compensation: Performance Appraisal helps in chalking out compensation packages
for employees. Merit rating is possible through performance appraisal. Performance
Appraisal tries to give worth to a performance. Compensation packages which
includes bonus, high salary rates, extra benefits, allowances and pre-requisites are
dependent on performance appraisal. The criteria should be merit rather than
seniority.
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3. Employees Development: The systematic procedure of performance appraisal helps
the supervisors to frame training policies and programmes. It helps to analyse
strengths and weaknesses of employees so that new jobs can be designed for efficient
employees. It also helps in framing future development programmes.
4. Selection Validation: Performance Appraisal helps the supervisors to understand the
validity and importance of the selection procedure. The supervisors come to know the
validity and thereby the strengths and weaknesses of selection procedure. Future
changes in selection methods can be made in this regard.
5. Communication: For an organization, effective communication between employees
and employers is very important. Through performance appraisal, communication can
be sought for in the following ways:
a. Through performance appraisal, the employers can understand and accept
skills of subordinates.
b. The subordinates can also understand and create a trust and confidence in
superiors.
c. It also helps in maintaining cordial and congenial labour management
relationship.
d. It develops the spirit of work and boosts the morale of employees.
All the above factors ensure effective communication.
6. Motivation: Performance appraisal serves as a motivation tool. Through evaluating
performance of employees, a person’s efficiency can be determined if the targets are
achieved. This very well motivates a person for better job and helps him to improve
his performance in the future.
The diagram below elaborates the performance appraisal process as follows:
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REFERENCES
1. Tom R., Adrian W, (2009). Contemporary human resource management.
Prentice Hall, 3
rd
edition.
2. Lewin, D. (2007) ‘HRM in the 21
st
century,’ in C. Wankel (ed.), Handbook of
21
st
century Management, London: Sage.
3. Boxal, P., Purcell, J and Wright, P. (eds) (2007). The oxford handbook of
human resource management, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
4. McLean, Gary N.; McLean. (2001). In Human Resource Development
International
Step. Informal P.A. coaching &
discipline
Step 2. Develop
standards &
measurement
Step 4. Prepare for
and conduct the
formal P.A.
Step 1. Job
analysis

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