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PRESENTATION
TOPIC = NATIONAL PARKS IN PAKISTAN
GROUP NO.3rd
SEMESTER = 6th
GROUP MEMBERS = 03 (Sumbal Ajmal) ,09 (Iqra
Ali) ,21(Omama Zahoor) ,27 (Sara Bibi) ,33
(Muqadas) ,39(Fiza Qaisar).
COMPILED AND PRESENTED BY IQRA ALI (09)
NATIONAL PARKS = The definition of national park as approved by
IUCN at its meeting held in New Delhi, India is as under :
A National Park is a relatively large area (at least one thousand hectares) where
one or several ecosystems are not materially altered by human exploitation and
occupation , where plant and animal species ,geomorphological sites and habitats
are of special scientific , educative , and recreative interest or which contains a
natural landscape of great beauty : 2) where the highest competent authority of
the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate as soon as possible ,
exploitation or occupation in the whole area and to enforce effectively the
respect of ecological , geomorphological or aesthetic features which have to its
establishment ; and 3) where visitors are allowed to enter , under special
conditions , for inspirational , cultural and recreative purposes .
In simple words, a National Park may be defined as an area owned by the
government and set aside for the protection and preservation of its outstanding
scenery , flora and fauna in natural state. It is accessible to the public for
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recreation , education and research activities. The following acts are prohibited
under laws in a National Park :
1) Hunting, shooting ,trapping , killing or capturing of any wild animal inside or
within a radius of three miles of its boundaries.
2) Firing of guns or any other acts which may disturb the wildlife or interfere with
their breeding places.
3) Felling , tapping , burning or in any way damaging or destroying , taking ,
collecting or removing any plant or tree from there.
4) Clearing or breaking up any land for cultivation.
5) Construction of human settlements , roads , highways , railway line or
damaging land for mining or oil and gas exploration .
6) Polluting water flowing in and through the national park.
There are fourteen (14) National Parks in Pakistan which are listed below :
1. Kirthar National Park (located in Sindh )
2. Lal Suhanra National Park (located in Punjab )
3. Chinji National Park (located in Punjab )
4. Hazarganji Chiltan National Park (located in Baluchistan )
5. Darhune/Hingol National Park (located in Baluchistan )
6. Ayubia National Park (located in K.P.K )
7. Chitral Gol National Park (located in K.P.K )
8. Sheikh Buddin National Park (located in K.P.K )
9. Margala Hills National Park (located in Federal Area )
10. Machiara National Park (located in Azad Kashmir )
11. Khunjerab National Park (located in Northern Area )
12. Handrap Shandoor National Park (located in Northern Area )
13. Central Karakoram National Park (located in Northern Area )
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14. Deosai National Park (located in Northern Area ).
There are fourteen (14) National Parks in Pakistan but we will discuss some of the
important which are as follows :
1.KIRTHAR NATIONAL PARK
Kirthar National Park is situated in the Kirthar mountains in Jamshoro district in
the south-western part of Sindh.On west it is bounded by Baluchistan province
and on the east by Surjan , Sumbak and Hathiano hill ranges. Approximately 1/3
of the park lies in North of Karachi District and 2/3 in south-east of Dadu
District.This park stretches over an area of 308,733 hectares , making it the seond
largest National Park in Pakistan after Hingol National Park.This park was
established in 1970.The park area is arid with mean annual precipitation of 150-
200 mm. Most of the rainfall occurs during July and August. Temperature often
remains extreme, exceeding 38O c during most of summer. There are two main
climatic seasons; winter (Oct-Feb) and summer (Mar-Sept). There have been
drought conditions in the park for the last five years from 1996 upto 2001 with no
rains resulting in the extreme stresses on the wildlife.
The ravines and low rugged hills upon which the park spreads are dry but
strikingly beautiful. This park has most impressive wildlife of Sindh , Pakistan,s
third largest dam , the Hub dam , the world’s largest fort , Ranikot , centuries old
graveyard of Taung period , petrified wood , calcified fossils and arid land valleys.
The park has few lakes , most famous being the Hub lake with an area of 82
square kilometres and is among the biggest manmade lakes in the country. The
lake has been declared as sanctuary of Mahasheer , one of the most celebrated of
all the freshwater fish. The lake also serves as a refuge fo a number of migratory
birds.
This park was primarily established to protect and preserve wild goats and sheep
of Sindh. The famous wild goat of Sindh , the Sindh Ibex , Capra hircus (locally
known as Sarah ) whose population was dwindling fast has been restored in this
park. Counts of the animal in 1971 showed a population of about 1200 ; in 1977
about 2500 and today it is now more than 4,000. The wild sheep or Gud ( Ovis
Orientalis ) and Chinkara Gazelle have also been raised to a healthy population in
this park. 15 Blackbucks have been kept in Khar Centre , a component of the park
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, since 1984. These were presented as gift by the state of Texas , U.S.A , a token of
gesture of appreciation for one made earlier by the former state of Bhawalpur.
26 pricipal species of mammals are believed to occur in the park including Sind
Ibex , Urial , Chinkara , jackal , fox , hyaena , jungle cats , leopard , pangolin , ratel ,
porcupine and mongoose.
The bird fauna is equally rich .At least 58 varieties occur in the park. These include
hoopoe , finch larks , shrikes , wheateaters , wabblers , king fishers , eagles ,
vultures etc. Among the large birds which breed in the park are sandgrouses ,
stone curlews , grey patridges and see-see patridges . Houbara bustard is also a
regular visitor to these valleys.
Reptiles are represented by large monitor lizards , geckos , chameleons , turtles ,
tortoises and all the common varieties of poisonous snakes of Sindh.
2. LAL SUHANRA NATIONAL PARK
LOCATION=This park is located 32 kilometers northeast of
Bahawalpur(Southern Punjab).
Area=31,368 hectares.
It was declared a National Park in 1972.
The major objective of this park was to save Black-buck, Chinkara and some other
important species.
Lal Suhanra National Park, Lal Suhanra Zoo Rd
Weather averages
Month High / Low (°C)
June 41° / 29°
July 39° / 29°
August 37° / 28°
September 36° / 25°
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Reintroduction of blackbuck started in 1970 with the help of WWF and the
population has now reached to about 150 animals. With the successful
introduction of black-buck , the other wildlife of the area like hogdeer , chinkara ,
nilgai ,and Indian rhinoceros have also been introduced. Black-bucks ,chinkara ,
nilgai etc. have been kept in enclosures for safe breeding. For the construction of
wire enclosures , wire nettings (70 km long and 4m high ) were donated by the
children from Holland , on an appeal from the WWF.
A conspicuous feature of this park is the variety of ecosystems not found in any
other national park of the country . The park has an artificially irrigated forest
plantation of about 20,974 acres. The desert and the arid zone take up 1,01726
acres. There is a big lake , about 50,000 acres in area ,but choked with aquatic
weeds.
There are about 302 species of plants; 31 species of mammals ,119 species of
birds (of which 38 species are migratory); 27 species of reptiles; 3 species of
amphibians and 23 species of freshwater fish in this park.
The bulk of wildlife comprises of black-buck ,Chinkara, Nilgai, Caracal, Jackals,
Wild boars, Houbara bustards,Herons,Cranes,Pea-
fowls,Sandgrouse,Mallards,Black & Grey patridges and Quails.
The park has few tourist huts, a helipad, an observation tower, camping sites and
an information centre.
It also has a playland for children, a small zoo in which the main attractions are
two Rhinos from Nepal.
3. CHINJI NATIONAL PARK
This park covers an area of 6,095 hectares and is located in the Salt range about
30 kilometers from Talagang (District Chakwal ) where the annual rainfall is about
54 cm. Average annual rainfall in the area is 537 mm, out of which 308 mm is in
the monsoon season from July to September. Maximum temperature is 27 °C in
June and minimum is 2.2 °C in January. Frost is common in winter season. Relative
humidity can reach up to 80% in monsoon.
This park was proposed mainly to protect and preserve the Urials. The hills are
cris-crossed by a number of torrents that add to the supply of water in the Soan
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river. The river itself eventually falls into the Indus. This area is very important and
interesting from a paleontological point of view , because a number of
spectacular fossils have been collected from here.
This park is the natural habitat of the Punjabi urial ,Chinkara ,Gazelle, Wild boar,
Civet ,Wild hare ,Mongoose and Porcupines.
Most of the park is fenced by 1.6m high wire netting.
4. HAZARGANJI CHILTAN NATIONAL PARK
Etymology
The name comes from the travelling route between the mountains called
"Hazarganji", which means (of a thousand treasures) in native language as it was a
historical passage for the Greco-Bactrian, the Mongols, the Scythians and
migrating hordes of Baloch tribes.
This park is spread over an area of 12,567 hectares. It is located approximately 20
km South-west of Quetta. This park was established in 1973 by merging together
the Hazarganji State Forest and Chiltan State Forest. The main objective was to
restore the population of Chiltan Markhor which is , at present , labelled as
critically endangered.
Other animals in the park are wolves , hyaenas , wild cats , hare and porcupines.
Among the birds in the park , the see-see patridge and chukor are the most
conspicuous.
In the breeding season one can find warblers , shrikes , rock nuthatch , rock
pigeons etc. nesting in recesses of boulders. Among the birds of prey eagles ,
falcons , bearded vultures , hawks etc. are regular visitors to the park. Reptiles are
represented by monitor lizards , geckos ,cobras and vipers .
Among the trees almond , wild ash , wild olive and pistachios are common.
Juniper (pencil cedar) and shrubs like wild cherries and wild figs are also
abundant. During spring , one can see tulips and poppies blooming.
5. DHARUNE-HINGOL NATIONAL PARK
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