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Effect of factors on the level of workers productivity
1.0 Introduction
The most desirable dependent variable in any organizational and industrial psychology is
productivity. Thus, a major concern of a manufacturing company like the Flour Mills Nigeria Plc
is the focus to improve on workers job performances, as an indispensible measure of workers’
productivity. In most industries, people feel that their employers are not appreciating or
recognizing their hard work and in return develop decreased motivation. This in turn reduces the
productivity of an organization. Factors such as lack of feedback and communication from the
employers make employees feel overlooked and this tend to inhibit their productive abilities
(Greenberg & Baron, 2003). The effect of monetary factors on workers’ productivity is
minimally felt if the management endeavors to apply effective leadership styles focused on
motivating the entire workforce. To increase the Flour Mills Nigeria Plc workers’ productivity,
the management needs to employ competitive-oriented strategies particularly on workforce
motivation, time management and effective leadership. In view of the above, this case study
seeks to investigate these variables as they impact on the Flour Mills Nigeria Plc workers’
productivity. It is son important for every organization to put in place proper time management
strategies for its employees so that to increase the productivity of its employees. Effective
leadership abilities ins another important factor in the management of an organization as aspects
of good leadership capabilities will likely reflect in the productivity of the organization and the
overall performance of the workers
1.1. Statement of the Problem
The management of workers at Flour Mills Nigeria Plc is a fundamental part of the
management process. The critical understanding of workforce in an industry is important in the
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recognition of the synonymous nature of the human element and the firm’s corporate image.
Most leaders do not appreciate workers motivations geared towards the organizational goals and
objective achievements. In Nigeria, there is labor surplus and as a result, endeavors geared
towards effective workers’ motivation to increase productivity are not given much priority. This
is an example of a typical African industry where workers are treated like machines and in
response they do not properly handle their work. The ineffectiveness in Flour Mills Nigeria Plc
results from negative task performance. In this case, the study seeks to investigate the effect of
proper time management, workers motivation and effective leadership as they impact on Flour
Mills Nigeria Plc workers productivity.
1.2. Purpose of the study
The rationale of the research study is anchored on the need to boost Flour Mills Nigeria
Plc workers level of productivity through appropriate techniques. Thus, the study aims at
investigating the impact of effective leadership, proper time management and workforce
motivation, among other factors that affect employees’ productivity .the study will majorly focus
on the contribution of these factors to the productive of its workers.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The central objective of this study is to determine the effect of proper time management,
effective leadership and workers motivation and how these factors influence the level of workers
productivity within the flour mill Nigeria Plc. But more specifically, the study aimed was to
determine both the relative and the joint contribution of effective time management, workers
productivity and effective leadership to the work force productivity within the company.
Furthermore, the study aimed at determining the significant relationships that exist between the
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workers productivity within the flour mill Nigeria Plc and the independent variables that include
proper time management, effective leadership and workers motivation.
.
1.4. Research Questions
The study on the effects of various factors on the productive of workers in the flour mill
Nigeria Plc was concerned with answering the following questions.
What are the composite impact of effective leadership, workers motivation and proper time
management on the productivity of the workers within the flour mil Nigeria Plc?
What are the existing relationship between effective leadership, workers motivation and effective
time management and the workers productivity within the flour mill Nigeria Plc?
What are the relative impacts of proper time management, workers motivation?
What are the relative impacts of effective time management, effective leadership and workers
motivation on the workers productivity within the flour mill Nigeria Plc?
1.5. Hypothesis
In order to obtain the objective of the research study, a number of testable hypotheses
were formulated in which there was an assumption that there is an established relationship
between workers motivation, effective leadership and effective time management among other
factors and their level of productivity within the flour mill Nigeria plc. The following were the
underlying hypotheses:
1. Senior managers in the marketing and the manufacturing departments tend to ignore the
involvement of junior works in the management decisions such as time management.
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2. The employees that are responsible for managing the marketing and the production
department within flour mill Nigeria Plc tend not to pay attention to the aspect of
motivating the workers.
3. On the issue of productivity, employees in the manufacturing and marketing department
tend to be committed than their counterparts who are at the senior level of the
management.
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2. Literature review
There exist previous studies conducted on the impacts of effective leadership, workers
motivation and proper time management on workers’ productivity in various organizations.
2.1. Effective leadership and Workers productivity
Effective leadership is regarded crucial in most African industries just like witnessed in
global industries. In striving to remain stable in this globally competitive world, organizations
are encouraged to avoid traditional leadership approaches and authoritarian hierarchies which
would otherwise make them be caught up in the middle of the bureaucratic web. Organizations
that pursue effective leadership opt for positive impact on the workers productivity, besides
witnessed positive relations among team players (Kor, 2003). Ultimately, it is the individual
workers productivity that culminates into the overall industries improved performance. Thus,
effective leadership is regarded instrumental in enhancing organizational productivities.
A study carried on the effects of effective leadership and workers’ productivity indicated
that it is possible for managers to increase the productivity of their workers and also their job
satisfaction by controlling certain factors. Studies have revealed that factors such as challenging
tasks, supportive working environment, supportive colleagues and equitable rewards are
indicators of effective leadership that can help in improving the productivity of workers as the
factors are supportive elements in creating conducive working environment.
Various studies have revealed that most employees enjoy challenging work. A study
carried out in the mining company revealed that when managers subject junior employees to
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challenging work situations, for instance in decision making and problem solving, the workers
worked diligently and were more productive without the supervision of their seniors.
Another study on the textile industry in Zambia revealed that the managers allowed the
junior employees in their company to decide on when and how to perform certain tasks and this
made the workers to be more productive in their work. This research revealed that when
employees are allowed to assign tasks by themselves without waiting for the management to do
so they are more productive as they feel that they are more independent and more trusted by the
management or their senior at the work place.
It has also been revealed that an effective leadership that is demonstrated by the manager
being a good role model is efficient in eliminating inequity and inconsistency that is usually
present in the work place and this will make the workers to be more productive and perform
beyond the work that they are assigned to do and this is only achievable if there is trust and fir
treatment from their leaders.
According to Milkovich & Newman (2005), a manager can portray effective leadership
skills and increase the productivity of workers by listening to their workers, being more
understanding to their concerns and praising their employees for their good performance in the
company. The two authors further indicates that effective leadership is only realizable when the
managers listen to their employees and as a result get to learn of their dissatisfaction, perceived
inequities and the unperceived inequities with an aim of getting solutions to their problems if any
and thus increase their productivity in the organization as the leaders in the organization will be
in a position to put in place positive measures that will prevent costly turnovers, absenteeism and
dissatisfaction.
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In addition, effective leadership leads to elimination of misunderstanding among the
workers that can contribute to minimal productivity and this can be achieved by putting in place
regular meetings with the employees. In these meeting, leaders can explain in simple and in non-
bewildering legal terms the procedures and the policies of the organization, time schedules plans
and job descriptions (Milkovich & Newman 2005). Also in these meetings, the effective
leadership can be portrayed in such a way that, the managers are in a position to allow employee
participation in some of the decision making processes in the organization and also giving them a
chance to submit and present their ideas and concerns.
Further research indicates that, provision of supportive working conditions has the
capability of reducing dissatisfaction among the workers in the workplace. As most workers
spend more hours in the work place, they tend to need comfortable and safe place to work in.
therefore, it is very crucial for an effective manager to provide well lit, god ventilation and clean
working environment in order to increase the productivity of the workers (Milkovich &
Newman, 2005). In addition Milkovich & Newman (2005), effective leadership that has the
capability of increasing the productivity of the managers is only realizable when the manager
have in place a budget that allows them replace the worn out furnishings and equipment that will
make them to be in a position to create a create a conducive working environment that will result
in boosting of the workers morale and safety and thus an increase in productivity.
An effective leadership can also provide a friendly working environment in which the
workers can have the opportunity of knowing their fellow workers. These opportunities can be
made available by the managers by putting in place informal office gatherings, training programs
and meetings, lunch and coffee breaks as this will make the employees to be more productive in
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their work as they are assured of support from their colleagues that encourages them to strive in
the work environment.
Therefore the rationale of this study which aims at investigating the impact of effective
leadership skills in the floor mills Nigeria Plc workers as a factor that influence their
productivity, will rely on the previous studies that conclude that an important key in the
workplace that has the capability of improving the employees productivity in this industry is
effective leadership. It is also important to note that recruiting employees because of their
personality match with the company’s goals does not exclude managers from being ineffective in
their roles. An effective leader in the realization of productivity of his or her workers must put
into consideration that provision of supportive working environment, challenging tasks,
supportive colleagues and equitable rewards are key factors that are essential that can result into
increased productivity.
2.2. Workers Productivity and Proper Time Management
Organizational success and workers’ productivity is critically dependent on proper time
management. The worst mistake workers make in carrying out their jobs is failing to realize how
much time is being lost due to improper time management which directly affects employees’
productivity and the industry bottom line. According to Oyebanjo (2004), there is a significant
relationship between the overall workers productivity and time management. Time management
is imperative to managerial productivity. Thus, workload has to be properly controlled and more
time focused on the most important job aspects or tasks. Proper time management behavior and
the general time control poses a significant impact on the workers job productivity. Finally,
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proper time management results into improved personal life, mental health and job productivity.
Many studies have also revealed that most successful and productive individuals are those who
can manage their time excellently. Hence, time as a resource has to be properly managed for a
successful workplace to be realized.
According to research carried by Elton Mayo on effective time usage by worker results
into high productivity in an organization which further leads to an increase in the organization
income. The study also indicated that an organized working process for the workers has the
possibility of increasing the level of productive of worker in the organization
Effective usage of time leads to high productivity of business, and high productivity
increases the income. This is the main reason for time management to become so popular
nowadays. The concept of time management is commonly used in all spheres of life, but this
aspect becomes very important when we talk about employee time management: organizing
working process for employee to increase the level of productivity.
Studies have showed that employee who are subjected to flex time schedules prove to be
more happy and productive in their work than their colleagues who are subjected to tight
schedules. The study also included that the flexible working hours not only leave the workers
satisfied but they also continue to work intensely and these findings were applicable to remote
worker and employees who had reduced working hours in a sugar company in South Africa. The
same research believed that intensified work schedules and effort given workers in exchange of
more flexible working hours increased their productivity in the company.
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Further study carried out in the Cranfield school of management in the UK indicated that
workers who are given flexible working hours by their employers are likely to work more
intensely and be more productive than their employees who have rigid working hours.
Various studies further posit that the reason for high productivity as a result of the
flexible working hours can be based on the kind of payment from the employer to the worker in
exchange of the time to work.
Management professors Clare Kelleher and Deirdre Anderson carried out a research on
the impact of time management in relation to workers productivity. In this study a questionnaire
was used to survey 2,000 employees at five large multi- national corporations in America. From
this research, the professors found out that workers who work remotely one day per week and
workers who had reduced their required weekly hours tend to be more productive and satisfied
than their than their counterparts who had rigid working hours. In addition, the study indicated
that workers on flexible working schedules tend to report lower levels of stress and high loyalty
to the company than their counterparts who are not on the same program.
A study by the Cranfield researchers that used 47 interviews on workers on flexible time
schedules from four companies indicated that, flexible time schedules are attributed to the
increased work intensity that comes in the form of higher productivity and longer working hours.
But Anderson and Kelleher attributes this phenomena is based on the aspect of the managers’
willingness to establish equilibrium between the workers and their employers.
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2.3. Organization Productivity and Workers Motivation
Basically, the levels of employees’ productivity rely not only on the actually acquired
skills and knowledge, but also on the motivational levels exhibited by each person. According to
Jago (1982), workers motivation is an external inducement or internal drive to conduct behavior
in a particular way that would typically lead to rewards. It is essential that each firm strive for
workers motivation and retain best employees since achieving talented workers acts as a key
driving force behind any successful firm. In today’s organizations, the major concern is financial
motivation whereas the non-financial aspects tied to Maslow’s basic needs are resorted as a
result of the financial motivation failure (Hammed, 2002).
A study that was carried out by Hawthorne on the motivation of the workers indicated that, there
is no total connection between productivity and the motivational factors but it indicated that there
are other variable factors that affected the productivity of the workers at the work place rather
than the motivational factors. This research by the Hawthorne showed that both fatigue and
monotony impacted negatively on workers productivity and there was need to control the same
through putting controls in the rewards.
In a typical organization, motivation can either be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic
motivation involves the morale given to workers to increase their activity performance (Van-
Wart, 2005). Intrinsic factors include accommodative work-culture, growth, recognition and
achievement. On the hand, the behavioral influence geared towards obtaining external rewards
form the basis of extrinsic motivation. Examples of external rewards include money, the absence
of punishment and positive feedback or praise. From modern studies, there is a positive
relationship between workers productivity and intrinsic motivation or even with work
satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.
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The job of a manager in the organization is to get things done in order to increase the
productivity of the organization and to achieve this, workers has to be motivated. Despite of
numerous researches that have been carried on the subject of motivating workers, the subject has
not been clearly been understood and in most cases there is poor practice on the field.
Studies has shown that, in order to understand the aspect of motivation, one need to
understand the human nature first as it is usually complex and a better understanding and
appreciation of the human nature in order to employ effective employee motivation in the
organization and as a result attain effective leadership and time management.
Various studies have been carried out on the motivation theory and practice in the
organization. Research carried out indicated that apart from the benefit and the moral value of
the altruistic approaches in treating employees as human beings and also respecting their dignity,
this research has shown that, employees and to be motivated as this will make them more
productive and creative.
Various studies have also indicated that the aspect of motivation is the key to an
organization success as it results to an organization success and improvement in its productivity
and in most cases performance or productivity of an organization is considered to be based on
the ability and also motivation of the workers. Thus productivity of an organization=f (workers
ability) (workers motivation).
Research has also shown that motivation of workers can be improved and this can be
achieved by the managers adapting reinforcements that are positive in nature, treating the
workers fairly, setting goals that are work related, satisfying the needs of the employers, putting
in place effective leadership and disciplinary measures, restructuring the jobs and basing rewards
on the job performance of the workers.
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Studies have shown that motivation in effect is a means in which the workers are induced
in a specific way so that the managers can have the capability of achieving the stated
organizational goals. Research has also shown that the stated organizational goals in the
motivation system in most cases do conform to the stated corporate policy of the organization. In
order for the motivational system to work, it must be tailored in a way that it is capable of
increasing the productivity of the organization.
Workers in various organizations have established that performance of workers generally
do relate to the employees motivation. This was ascertained by various management theories
since the time of Fredrick Taylor on the principle of the scientific management in 1991 that
indicated that the modern motivation methods that have been employed on the employees which
have resulted into discretions of Taylor’s differential rate piece-work and Gantts task and the
wage system.
Research has also indicated that, the modern motivational methods that are being
employed by the employers in motivating their employers are more productive than the
traditional methods of motivation. This research further ascertained from the employees that the
motivating factors such as time management, effective leadership and motivating in a way
motivated the employers to work more tirelessly and at the end the results at the organization
was promising. The study concluded that employees can be adequately motivated in order to
increase their productivity in the work place and it is very important for the employers to take an
active role in motivating their employees.
Research has also indicated that motivation is a catalyst in the productivity of the workers
as it makes the workers to work without pressure. In addition it is important not only to provide
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the employees with a bulk log of work without putting motivational factors into place. Further
researches indicate that motivation of workers can be achieved in a way that the workers are
provided with a motive that either make them to act positively or negatively.
Another research indicates that lack of motivation of workers at the work place can be
attributed to the contribution of effective leadership in the organization and in most motivation is
used by effective leaders in the organization in order to make the ordinary workers in the
organization to achieve uncommon results in the organization.
According to the Maslow motivational theory (1943), individuals to work because they
are motivated by the fact that they want to survive and this can only be achieved if they are able
to get a satisfying financial compensation, establish new relationships, have a sense of belonging,
feel a sense of achievement and in most cases feel important in the organization as they will have
the sense of identity and most importantly job satisfaction that will make them to work diligently
for the organization without the desire to leave or get another job. Studies have concluded that,
workers always feel a Sense of belonging that made them to achieve a job satisfaction that will in
turn make the workers to perform highly and therefore increase the productivity of the workers
in the firm.
But according to Taylor (1991), the most motivational factor that can contribute
positively to the workers productivity is good salary and wages and he further added that in most
cases non-incentive wage system does encourage low productivity among the workers.
The research further added that, in the organizations where all workers received the same
level of wages irrespective of their contribution to the goal, mission and the purpose of the
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organization. This factor made the employees to work less, as in most cases they thought that,
working at a rate that was so high will make fewer employees and this element discouraged them
from working more as they always felt insecure. This analogy was identified to be affecting both
the unskilled and the unskilled workers in the various industries as they always felt unmotivated.
For instance, in the production unit in the steel industry where Taylor worked as an
engineer and the principles he used in motivating the employers in this unit did not apply to the
managerial and the administrative units which it was difficult to measure the workers
productivity.
In addition, Gantt (1913) in his study indicated that the best way to compensate workers
was through basic payment in which all the workers that put extra efforts were paid for the
bonuses for these extra performance which in turn increased the productivity of the workers. But
Gantt study further concluded that the two methods of motivating the employee in a way treated
the employees as mere laborers who only toil for better payment and these methods of
motivation has been discouraged by the current employers. The author further adds that, recent
researches have indicated that modern managers tend to recognize workers in the all levels as
part of their team and are also responsible for the positively contributing to the team’s
performance. Therefore, it is worth noting that, the inadequacy of one or more workers is more
likely to be covered by the other workers even though there is room for the recognition of good
works that is done by the individual members in the team either through rewards or awards.
In one of the elaborate studies on the employees motivation in relation to their
productivity to the organization, 31,000 and 13,000 were used in the case study in the
Minneapolis gas company where it sought to determine the desire of employees in the work
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place. The study which was carried out from 1945 to 1965 and it showed how various
motivational factors slightly differed between men and women but job security as a motivational
factor was the most rated factor by both groups. The next three motivational factors for the two
groups were job advancement, the type of the work and the company profile. But in contrast in
the same study, other motivational factors such as good working conditions, payment and other
benefits were given poor rating by both groups. Therefore the study concluded that to workers
money is not a prime motivational factor in enhancing productivity of workers in an
organization.
Researches have indicated that workers who are over achieving and talented in most
cases increase the productivity of an organization and therefore it is important for every
organization to motivate its employees.
Organizational leadership in the typical African industries is a key issue in economic
growth and overall organization productivity. It is worthy to note that workers productivity
highly depends on the kind of leadership within an organization. This study reveals how workers
motivations affect production in a typical Nigerian industry. Utilization of time is another
sensitive factor in workers’ productivity. It is therefore a duty for the leadership to considerably
engage their employees in programs that performance oriented. This will be determined by
mechanisms that evaluate behavioral change in employees as well in performance of specific
roles.
In addition various studies have concluded that it is not conceivable for the managers to
have a greet number of workers who produce less even though they are paid more.
Various productivity case studies and surveys have indicated that, an increased workers
motivation and satisfaction has the likelihood of increasing the workers out put within the firm.
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There is also an indication that managers who are innovative and also progressive has the
potential of achieving gain s that are productive in nature if the human resource management
techniques goes beyond the incentives that are payment based.
Studies have further indicated that workers in an organization are likely to perform better
and thus be more productive in the organization. The same study also indicated that workers who
are satisfied in their work are likely to remain loyal to their work and they will not experience the
pressure of wanting to move to different location to enjoy the same.
A further research was conducted in a sugar plantation in Zambia and it indicated that
monetary rewards in most cases do have a negative impact on the motivational level of the
employees and this makes them not to contribute positively to organizational productivity.
Another research was carried out in a workplace setting and the employees felt that the
rewards they achieved at the workplace in a way controlled their behavior thus the making them
not to contribute positively to the organization productivity as they felt that they were always
being controlled by their employers through the rewards. In the same study, it was concluded
that, the rewards at the job place in a way decrease the workers productivity and motivation in
the tasks that they were rewarded. In this same research, rewarding employees for performing a
certain task would not make the workers to work unless they are rewarded and this is likely to
decrease their productivity in the organization.
A another research conducted to examined the effects of the performance- contingent
rewards and their contribution to the workers intrinsic motivation showed that if various reward
are controlled, to some extent they can be directly be related to the employees productivity in the
work place.
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Theoretical framework
The following theories was be used in this study.
The traditional theory ‘x´
The theory that was ascribed by the Sigmund theory who was a great lover of people and
who was far from being an optimist as an individual claims that, individuals are usually lazy in
doing their jobs. And in addition, people are so lazy to an extent of avoiding the work that has
been allocated to them. Sigmund further posits that most individuals do not have ambition in
doing their work and in most cases they lacked the initiative of taking the responsibilities that
were assigned to them and all they wanted is job security and to make to the work that they have
been assigned, they ought to be rewarded, coerced, intimidated and punished. This Sigmund
three forms the basis of this study in establishing whether workers in the flour mill Nigeria Plc as
Sigmund argued that, this is a stick and carrot philosophy of management that should not be
encouraged. Sigmund argues that if this theory is encouraged by the leaders in their respective
work places, employees will need to be constantly supervised and thus trust will be lost between
the employees and the employers will no longer work as a team. This study will aim at
establishing whether Sigmund theory applies in the flour mill Nigeria Plc.
Theory 'Y' - Douglas McGregor
The research will also apply the theory Y which is a great contrast to the theory X which
McGregor believed that most people just wanted to learn and they use work as their natural
activity to an extent that they do develop a sense of self discipline and self development. This
theory indicates that most workers see rewards in different ways and not as much as the cash
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payments as this do not give them the freedom to undertake the work that are challenging in
nature.
The theory further indicates that, the managers have the role of dovetailing the workers
wish in order to achieve self development in the organization and as a result achieve a maximum
productivity and efficiency. The theory further argues that, it is through this that the established
of both the employer and the employee are met with sincerity and also through imagination and
as a result the enormous talent of the workers are tapped and geared towards their productivity at
the work place.
But the theory sound too good to be true as some it can be concluded by some
individuals that the theory tend to employ a management team that is slack and soft in nature.
Theory 'Z' - Abraham Maslow
The theory z is a theory that establishes a huge change from the theory x of Freud. In this
theory Abraham Maslow totally rejects the elements of Freud and instead he takes a more
optimistic approach in which he asserts that individuals need to be motivated in order for them to
be more productive in their work. Maslow who is the founder of the humanistic school of
thought holds that, that good attributes that are found in individuals are inherent in nature from
the time one is born but they are later lost as one grows up.
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Research Methodology
2.4. Research Design
The research applied the ex-post facto approach. This is because there was a systematic
experimental inquiry in which the variables were already in existence and were not inherently
manipulative. The design was geared towards testing the theories, identifying behavioral
phenomena, satisfying existing curiosity and exploring the condition in which these phenomena
occur (Daellenbach & Rouse, 2002). The Independent variable in this study included the workers
motivation, effective leadership and proper time management while the dependent variable was
workers productivity.
The research methodology chosen was adopted due to the existing economic merits over
the other research designs. Ideally the technique allowed a representative sample to be studied
and this predicted a true picture of the entire population of the inferences which could have been
expensive considering the size of the flour mills Nigeria Plc population (Delfgaauw, 2006).
2.5. Study Population and Sampling Techniques
Due to the fact that the flour mills Nigeria Plc is composed of numerous industries which
are majorly based in Ibadan, Oyo state in Nigeria and it houses over 600 employees in the same
industry, the selected industries for the study included the manufacturing and the marketing
sector. Thus to get a representative sample population from the selected industries within the
flour mills Nigeria Plc, a sample of 300 workers were selected for the study in order to get a
better understanding of how effective leadership, workers motivation and proper time
management impact on their productivity. The participants in the sample were obtained from
both the junior and the senior level.
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In selecting the participants in this study, stratified sampling technique was applied. In
this case a proportionate allocation of the sampling fraction in each of the strata that was
proportional to that of the total population i.e. 600 was used and because the workers population
consisted of approximately 59% in the male stratum and 41% in the female stratum, then the
relative size of the sample included two females and three males in the sample proportion.
There was also optimum allocation in which each of the stratums chosen was
proportionate to the standard deviation of the entire workers population in the distribution of the
existing variables. In this study larger samples were taken from the greatest variability. That is
from the effective leadership, motivational factors and time management in order to generate the
least sampling variance.
This sampling technique was considered appropriate for this study because it ensured that
the estimates made in selection of the sample were accurate in both marketing and the
manufacturing sectors of the company and the comparison of the two genders and the levels of
the workers were made with equal statistical power. In addition it was applied because it had the
capability of improving the workers population representativeness in the floor mills Nigeria Plc
in this study.
Applicability of the stratified sampling technique in the study
In general the size of the sample in each stratum was taken in proportion to the size of the
stratum. There was a proportional allocation in which the floor mil Nigeria Plc consisted the
following the following staff:
Male, senior and junior level: 363
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Female, senior and junior level: 237
Total: 600
In this case, the study consisted of 300 staff that was stratified according to the existing
categories of gender and the level of workers. The research population sample consisted of 125
females and 175 males within the age bracket of 20 to 60 years both from the senior and the
junior level of workers.
2.6. Data Collection and Instrumentation
The instrument that was used in this study was adopted from the workers behavior
assessment battery approach and under this assessment, the incorporation of the three sections
that describe proper time management, workers motivation; effective leadership and workplace
productivity was used for the study.
3. Proposal Plan and Procedure
Behavioral Rating scale: Management Leadership
This procedure encompassed a five scale items that intended to measure the managers
leadership behaviors at the Flour mills Nigeria Plc. The effective leadership subsection reliability
was based on the internal consistency that ranged from 0.67 t0 0.82. This is because the chosen
scales have been reported to accomplish the validity procedures. For example it has been
reported that, the measuring instrument indicates a construct convergent validity coefficient of
nearly 0.83 a similar scale on the behavior domain (Jago, 1982).
Behavioral Profile for workers motivation
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The employees profiling involved a five item scale that intended to measure the
workers motivation strategies that are being employed by the Flour Mills Nigeria Plc managers.
The reliability of this study depended heavily on a coefficient alpha of 0.90 and the reported
internal consistency in the workers motivation subsection that was ranging from 0.63 to 0.75.
Behavioral Inventory on Proper Time Management
In regard to the behavioral inventory on the issue of proper time management by the
workers, the five item Likert-scale was used in measuring how the management leaders do
utilize their time in order to enhance the employees’ performance (Boas et al., 1999).
The response that was set up for this study was based on a five point: SD-strongly
disagree, D-Disagree, U-undecided, A-Agree, and SA- strongly agree. 0.63 to 0.79 was the
proposed time management sub section internal consistency. While the proposed alpha was 0.89
and it satisfactorily supported the supported measuring instrument that was necessary in
measuring the productivity of the workers within the flour mil Nigeria Plc. (Chatman & Flynn,
2005).
3.1. Procedure
The instrument that was used in this study was administered to the Flour Mills Nigeria
Plc workers within the industry. The workers that were subjected to the study were from the
senior, intermediate and the lower cadres. The flour Mills Nigeria Plc top management
permission was sought before the administration of the research instrument and the study
purpose was explained to them.
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Otiende 24
The respondent was instructed on how to administration of the research instrument to the
industries participants will be conducted. The questionnaires filling procedures was thoroughly
explained to the Flour Mills Nigeria Plc workers.
Therefore, data collection using the workers motivational behavior profile, rating scale on
the leadership behavior and the behavior inventory time management adapted from the workers
behavior assessment battery was carried out in the second week. Data collection and recording
was carried out in the third week and the analysis of the obtained data was done on the fourth
week using the correlation matrix and the multiple regression statistical method. The analysis of
the variance (ANOVA) was used to report the relationship between the independent variable and
the dependent variable in the sixth week of the research findings during the report presentation.
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Otiende 25
Data presentation, results and discussion
Table1: The mean standard deviation among the variables
Mean std. deviation N
Job performance of the male workers
64.9
5.99
300
Job performance of the female workers
71.7
4.9
300
Work motivation of the male workers
65.89
6.99
300
Work motivation of the female workers
68.99
7.99
300
Leadership effectiveness of male employers
64.67
8.19
300
Leadership effectiveness of the female employers
74.20
9.00
300
Time management among the female workers
76.00
8.14
300
Time management among the male workers
56.90
8.14
300
Table 2: intercorrectional among the variables
Job performance among the male employees
1.000
0.005
1.001
Job performance among the female employees
1.005
0.008
1.091
Work motivation of the male workers
1.005
1.006
1.000
Work motivation of the female workers
1.098
1.070
1.000
Leadership effectiveness of male employers
O.560
0.061
1.000
Leadership effectiveness of the female employers
0.670
0.082
1.098
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